Russian is a Slavic language in the Indo-European family—- languages considered difficult for native English speakers because of their different alphabet, complex system of endings, perfective & imperfective verb forms, and unpredictable accents within words, difficult pronunciation, and different mindset from Romance or Germanic languages. From the spoken language aspect, Russian language’s closest relatives are Ukrainian and Belarusian, the other two national languages in the East Slavic group. About 150 million people in Russia and the former republics of the USSR speak Russian as a mother tongue.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union, many Commonwealth countries and the United Nations, as well as in many world organizations.
There are many differences between English and Russian language in many important aspects. The first and the most important difference that one detects is the absence of word endings in English. The modern Russian language has a developed system of words endings. In a sentence each word has away to describe anything you would like. English pays more attention to verbs for describing any situation.
If you observe English to Russian language translation or Russian to English, the following facts you will see,
Alphabet: Russian is written using the Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters, and some of these letters are similar to letters in the Latin alphabet used in English. While we used the letters as sample as ABC but it’s harder for Russians to learn what seem so easy to us.
Sounds: The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic. The language possesses five vowels, which are written with different letters depending on whether or not the preceding consonant is palatalized. English has 12 vowel sounds (5 long, 7 short), plus 8 diphthongs.
Russian has a similar number of consonants to English, but their sounds do not fully overlap. The consonants of Russian typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to 4 consecutive sounds.
Russian has variable stress patterns, as English. English is a strongly stressed language. In content words of any number of syllables, as well as function words of more than one syllable, there will be at least one syllable with lexical stress. However, Russian learners may give undue prominence to words that English native speakers would swallow. Russian learners may ask questions with falling instead of rising intonation, which does not sound polite to English native speakers.
Dialects: English has been subject to a large degree of regional dialect variation for many centuries. Its global spread now means that a large number of dialects and English-based Creole languages and Pidgins can be found all over the world. A number of dialects also exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of the Russian language into two primary regional groupings, “Northern”, and “Southern”, with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two. Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern, Central and Southern, with Moscow lying in the Central region.
Grammar: Russian grammar encompasses a highly synthetic morphology and syntax. English grammar has minimal inflection. Russian and English convey meaning through the verb systems in different ways. The Russian system is based in the concept of aspect: actions are either completed or not completed. This is shown by appending affixes to the verb stem. There are few auxiliary verbs. This contrasts with English, which has progressive and perfect tense forms, and avoids the need for affixation or inflection by the extensive use of auxiliaries.
The Russian language has 3 genders: masculine, feminine and neuter, and six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental and prepositional. This means that there are different endings for adjectives and nouns depending on whether words are singular or plural, and also on the case and the gender of the noun. English nouns have four genders: masculine, feminine, neuter and common gender. English has subjective case, objective case, genitive case, determinative genitive pronouns and nominal genitive pronouns.
There are also differences in rules for pluralization. In English to indicate a plural number of the noun there is always the same rule (aside from a few exceptions) -s/es ending. But in Russian language, the way they indicate “more than one” depends on how many items they are talking about as well as on the gender of the items.
Sentence: Russian tends to use a lot of negative words, constructions with the negation and double negation; the method of expressing the thought “from the reverse” is frequent. While in English, affirmative sentences prevail, negative structures are rare, double negation is extremely rare.
Russian sentences are longer than English ones, the reason is that Russian syllables and words are approximately 30-50% longer in Russian and Russians are fond of long and colorful phrases.The English text is composed of comparatively short sentences and brief structures.
In Russian language, the order of words ina sentence plays a greatsemantic role, the mostimportant word stands at the beginning. While the word order isfixed, semantic shades ofmeaning are expressed byother means. In Englishthere can be one variant.
In Russian language, a lot of sentences begin not with thesubject but, an object, and the rhematic information stands at theend of the sentence. In English language, the sentence begins with the subject as a rule and the rheumatic information is placed at the beginning of the sentence.