Some Notes on Translation of Legal Terms
Translation of legal documents is a tough task due to the strong professionality and logical words of these documents. While the legal terms are the difficult points, it will be helpful if you can deal with legal vocabulary well.
I. Translation of synonyms
Example 1. Legal documents use a lot of synonyms to avoid ambiguity. There are two ways to translate this kind of terms: it is not necessary to translate all synonyms with same meaning and it is better to translate all of them.
This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.
“Made” and “entered into” are synonyms in this sentence and can be translated as “签订”. The whole sentence is translated as “本协议由甲方和乙方签订“.
Example 2. Party A shall no longer be responsible for keeping secret and confidential the part already published.
“Secret” and “confidential” are synonyms in this sentence and can be translated as “保密的”. The whole sentence is translated as “甲方对（合同中）已被公开部分不再承担保密义务”.
Example 3. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation.
“Oath” and “affirmation” are synonyms in this sentence and can be translated as “宣誓或陈词”. The whole sentence is translated as “唯有参议院具有审判一切弹劾案的权力。为此目的而开庭时，全体参议员都应宣誓或陈词“.
Example 4. The headings and marginal notes in these conditions shall not be deemed part thereof or be taken into consideration in the interpretation or construction thereof or of the contract.
“Interpretation” and “construction” are synonyms in this sentence and can be translated as “理解或解释”. The whole sentence is translated as ” 本合同条件中的标题和旁注不应视为合同文本的一部分，在理解或解释合同条件或合同本身时，也不应考虑这些标题和旁注”.
II. Translation of adverbs
The legal documents also adopt a lot of adverbs to accurately and precisely express the meaning without ambiguity. Such adverbs take “where”, “here”, etc. as the prefixes and combine another word to form new words.
For example, hereafter, hereby, herein, hereinafter, hereinbefore, hereof, hereto, hereunder, hereupon, herewith; thereafter, thereby, therefrom, therein, thereinafter, thereinbefore, thereon, thereof, thereunder, thereupon, therewith; whereas, whereby, wherein, whereof, whereon, etc. The key to translate such words is “understanding the original text well and choosing the suitable translation”.
Example 1. Instructions for the issuance of letters of credits, the letters of credits themselves, instructions for any amendments thereto and the amendments themselves shall be complete and precise.
In this sentence, “thereto” refers to “any amendments to the letters of credits” and can be translated as “对信用证修改”. The whole sentence is translated as “开具信用证的指示、信用证本身、有关对信用证修改的指示以及其修改书本身，必须完整、完整”.
Example 2. The committee shall review as necessary, but at least once every two years, the implementation and operation of this Agreement, taking into account the objectives hereof, and the rights and obligations contained herein.
In this sentence, “thereof” and “herein” refer to “of this Agreement” and “in this Agreement” respectively. The whole sentence is translated as “委员会把审定本协定的实施和运用视为必须做的事，至少每两年一次，来研究本协定的目标及本协定所规定的权利和义务”.
Example 3. The United States shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories.
In this sentence, “thereunder” refers to “under the international trusteeship system”. The whole sentence is translated as “联合国应根据其权力，建立一种国际托管制度，来管理和监督根据国际托管制度而达成的各单个协定所确定的领土。此种领土以下简称托管领土”.
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