How to Translate “Where”
As a conjunction, “where” can lead a noun clause, adverbial clause and attributive clause. 1. To lead a noun clause. When “where” is used as a conjunctive adverb, it can lead a subjective clause, predicative clause, objective clause etc. It can be translated to be“在什么地方”“哪里”“何处”“何地”etc. It matters much to the effect where the player stands. 球员到底站到什么地方影响极大。（leading a subjective clause） This is where the fresher has the advantage. 这就是新手的优越之处。（leading a predicative clause） The heavy solid lines in this figure indicate where the cut should be located. 该图中的粗实线表示应该从哪里切开（leading an objective clause） There arose the question where the player should stand. 这样就产生了一个问题：球员到底该站哪里。（leading an appositive clause） 2. Leading an adverbial clause This kind of clause can be translated to “（在）……地方” and protasis。 Where water is lacking, no plants can grow. 缺水的地方，植物不能生长。 Where the value of the work pieces is not so high, the materials are excellent for use. 如果加工件价值不高，那么这些材料便是可供使用的优良材料。 3. Leading an attributive clause a. As an relative adverb, it can lead attributive clause. It can modify place noun. If it is restrictive attributive clause, it can be translated to “的” structure phase。 Air moves from places where the pressure is high to places where the pressure is low. 空气从压力大的地方流向压力小的地方。 b. If where lead a non-restrictive attributive clause, the attributive clause can be separately translated. Heated gas is fed to the cooler, where its temperature drops to 20℃. 把热气体加到冷却器中，在那里其温度降低到 20℃。 c. According to the logical relationship of the original sentence, where clause can be translated into condition clause, result clause etc. Needless to say, the traditional FOB-term is inappropriate where the seller is called upon to hand over the goods to a cargo terminal before the ship arrives. 毋庸赘言，如果卖方被要求在船只到达之前将货物交给货运站，则传统的FOB 条款是不适合的。 Please practice the following sentences: 1. Explosive hardening procedures take up where heat treatments leave off. 2. Where the watt is small a unit, we may use the kilowatt. 3. Certain chemicals are highly soluble in water and are therefore easily dispersed throughout ecosystems where they are readily absorbed by animals.
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