Legal Vocabulary

案件  case

案件发回  remand a case (to a low court)

案件名称  title of a case

案卷材料  materials in the case

案情陈述书  statement of case

案外人  person other than involved in the case

案值  total value involved in the case

败诉方  losing party

办案人员  personnel handling a case

保全措施申请书  application for protective measures

报案  report a case (to security authorities)

被告  defendant; the accused

被告人最后陈述  final statement of the accused

被告向原告第二次答辩  rejoinder

被害人  victim

被害人的诉讼代理人  victim’s agent ad litem

被上诉人  respondent; the appellee

被申请人  respondent

被申请执行人  party against whom execution is filed

被执行人  person subject to enforcement

本诉  principal action

必要共同诉讼人  party in necessary co-litigation

变通管辖  jurisdiction by accord

辩护  defense

辩护律师  defense attorney/lawyer

辩护人  defender

辩护证据  exculpatory evidence; defense evidence

辩论阶段  stage of court debate

驳回反诉  dismiss a counterclaim; reject a counterclaim

驳回请求  deny/dismiss a motion

驳回上诉、维持原判  reject/dismiss the appeal and sustain the original judgement/ruling

驳回诉讼  dismiss an action/suit

驳回通知书  notice of dismissal

驳回自诉  dismiss/reject a private prosecution

驳回自诉裁定书  ruling of dismissing private-prosecuting case

补充答辩  supplementary answer

补充判决  supplementary judgement

补充侦查  supplementary investigation

不公开审理  trial in camera

不立案决定书  written decision of no case-filing

不批准逮捕决定书  written decision of disapproving an arrest

不起诉  nol pros

不予受理起诉通知书  notice of dismissal of accusation by the court

财产保全申请书  application for attachment; application for property preservation

裁定  order; determination (指最终裁定)

裁定管辖  jurisdiction by order

裁定书  order; ruling

裁决书  award

采信的证据  admitted evidence

查封  seal up

撤回上诉  withdraw appeal

撤诉  withdraw a lawsuit

撤销立案  revoke a case placed on file

撤销原判,发回重审 rescind the original judgement and remand the case ro the original court for retrial

出示的证据  exhibit

除权判决  invalidating judgement (for negotiable instruments)

传唤  summon; call

传闻证据  hearsay

答辩  answer; reply

答辩陈述书  statement of defence

答辩状  answer; reply

大法官  associate justices; justice

大检察官  deputy chief procurator

代理控告  agency for accusation

代理申诉  agency for appeal

代理审判员  acting judge

代为申请取保候审  agency for application of the bail pending trial with restricted liberty of moving

弹劾式诉讼  accusatory procedure

当事人陈述  statement of the parties

当庭宣判  pronouncement of judgement or sentence in court

地区管辖  territorial jurisdiction

地区检察分院  inter-mediate People’s Procuratorate

第三人  third party

调查笔录  record of investigation

定期宣判 pronouncement of judgement or sentence later on a fixed date

定罪证据  incriminating evidence; inculpatory evidence

冻结  freeze

督促程序  procedure of supervision and urge

独任庭  sole-judge bench

独任仲裁员  sole arbitrator

对妨碍民事诉讼的强制措施  compulsory measures against impairment of civil action

对席判决  judgement inter parties

二审  trial of second instance

二审案件  case of trial of second insurance

罚款  impose a fine

法定证据  statutory legal evidence

法定证据制度  system of legal evidence

法官  judges

法警  bailiff; court police

法律文书  legal instruments/papers

法律援助  legal aid

法律咨询  legal consulting

法庭辩论  court debate

法庭调查  court investigation

法庭审理笔录  court record

法庭审理方式  mode of court trial

法庭庭长  chief judge of a tribunal

法院  court

法院公告  court announcement

反诉  counterclaim

反诉答辩状  answer with counterclaim

反诉状  counterclaim

犯罪嫌疑人  criminal suspect

附带民事诉讼案件  a collateral civil action

附带民事诉讼被告  defendant of collateral civil action

复查  reexamination; recheck

复验  reinspect

高级法官  senior judge

高级检察官  senior procurator

高级人民法院  Higher People’s Court

告诉案件  case of complaint

告诉才处理的案件  case accepted at complaint

告诉申诉庭  complaint and petition division

工读学校  work-study school for delinquent children

公安部  Ministry of Public Security

公安分局  public security sub-bureau

公安厅  public security bureau at the levels of provinces, autonomous regions and cities under direct jurisdiction of central government

公开审理  trial in public

公开审判制度  open trial system

公示催告程序  procedure of public summons for exhortation

公诉案件  public-prosecuting case

公诉词  statement of public prosecution

公证机关  public notary office

共同管辖  concurrent jurisdiction

管辖  jurisdiction

国际司法协助  international judicial assistance

海事法院  maritime court

合议庭  collegial panel

合议庭评议笔录  record of deliberating by the collegiate bench

和解  composition; compromise

核对诉讼当事人身份  check identity of litigious parties

恢复执行  resumption of execution

回避  withdrawal

混合式诉讼  mixed action

基层人民法院  basic People’s Court

羁押期限  term in custody

级别管辖  subject matter jurisdiction of courts at different levels

监视居住  living at home under surveillance

监狱  prison

检察官  procurator

检察权  prosecutorial power

检察委员会  procuratorial/prosecutorial committee

检察院  procuratorate

检察院派出机构  outpost tribunal of procuratorate

简易程序  summary procedure

鉴定结论  expert conclusion

经济审判庭  economic tribunal

径行判决  direct adjudication without sessions; judgement without notice

纠问式诉讼  inquisitional proceedings

拘传  summon by force; summon by warrant

拘留所  detention house

举报  information/report of an offence

举证责任  burden of proof; onus probandi

决定书  decision

军事法院  military procuratorate

开庭审理  open a court session

开庭通知  notice of court session

勘验笔录  record of inquest

看守所  detention house

可执行财产  executable property

控告式诉讼  accusatory proceedings

控诉证据  incriminating evidence

控诉职能  accusation function

扣押  distrain on; attachment

扣押物  distress/distraint

宽限期  period of grace

劳动争议仲裁申请书  petition for labor dispute arbitration

劳改场  reform-through-labor farm

劳教所  reeducation-through-labor office

类推判决的核准程序  procedure for examination and approval of analogical sentence

累积证据  cumulative evidence

立案报告  place a case on file

立案管辖  functional jurisdiction

立案决定书  written decision of case-filing

立案侦查  report of placing a case on file

利害关系人  interested party

临时裁决书  interim award

律师见证书  lawyer’s written attestation; lawyer’s written authentication

律师事务所  law office; law firm

律师提前介入  prior intervention by lawyer

免于刑事处分  exemption from criminal penalty

民事案件  civil case

民事审判庭  civil tribunal

民事诉讼  civil action

民事诉讼法  Civil Procedural Law

扭送  seize and deliver a suspect to the police

派出法庭  detached tribunal

派出所  police station

判决  judgement; determination

判决书  judgement; determination; verdict (指陪审团作出的)

旁证  circumstantial evidence

陪审员  juror

批准逮捕  approval of arrest

破案  clear up a criminal case; solve a criminal case

破产  bankruptcy; insolvency

普通程序  general/ordinary procedure

普通管辖  general jurisdiction

企业法人破产还债程序  procedure of bankruptcy and liquidation of a business corporation

起诉  filing of a lawsuit

起诉  sue; litigate; prosecute; institution of proceedings

起诉状  indictment; information

区县检察院  grassroots People’s Procuratorate

取保候审  the bail pending trial with restricted liberty of moving

缺席判决  default judgement

人民调解委员会  People’s Mediation Committee

认定财产无主案件  cases concerning determination of property as qwnerless

认定公民无民事行为能力、限制民事行为能力案件cases concerning determination of a citizen as incompetent or with limited disposing capacity

上诉  appeal

上诉人  appellant

上诉状  petition for appeal

少管所  juvenile prison

社会治安综合治理  comprehensive treatment of social security

涉外案件  cases involving foreign interests

涉外民事诉讼  foreign civil proceedings

涉外刑事诉讼  foreign criminal proceedings

申请人  applicant; petitioner

申请书  petition; application for arbitration

申请执行人  execution applicant

申诉人宣誓书  claimant’s affidavit of authenticity

申诉书  appeal for revision; petition for revision

神示证据制度  system of divinity evidence

神示制度  ordeal system

审查案件  case review

审查并决定逮捕  examine and decide arrest

审查起诉阶段  stage of review and prosecution

审理通知书  notice of hearing

审判长  presiding judge

审判长宣布开庭  presiding judge announce court in session

审判管辖  adjudgement/trial jurisdiction

审判监督程序  procedure for trial supervision

审判委员会  judicial committee

审判员  judge

审问式诉讼  inquisitional proceedings

生效判决裁定  legally effective judgement/order

胜诉方  winning party

省市自治区检察院  higher People’s Procuratorate

失踪和死亡宣告  declaration of disappearance and death

实(质)体证据  substantial evidence

实物证据  tangible evidence

实在证据  real evidence

示意证据  demonstrative evidence

视听证据  audio-visual evidence

收容所  collecting post; safe retreat

首席大法官  chief justice

首席检察官  chief procurator

受害人的近亲属  victim’s immediate family

受理  acceptance

受理刑事案件审批表  registration form of acceptance of criminal case

受送达人  the addressee

书记员  court clerk

书记员宣读法庭纪律  court clerk reads court rules

书证  documentary evidence

司法部  Ministry of Justice

司法机关  judicial organizatons

司法警察  judicial police

司法局  judicial bureau

司法厅  judicial bureau at the levels of provinces, autonomous regions, and cities under direct jurisdiction of central government

司法协助  judicial assistance

死缓的复核  judicial review of death sentence with a retrieve

死刑复核程序  procedure for judicial review of death sentence

死刑复核权  competence for judicial review of death sentence

送达  service of process

送达传票  service of summons/subpoena

送达诉状  service of bill of complaint

搜查  search

诉  sue; suit; action; lawsuit

诉前财产保全  property attachment prior to lawsuit

诉讼  litigation; lawsuit; sue; action

诉讼保全  attachment

诉讼参加人  litigious participants

诉讼代理人  agent ad litem

诉状  complaint; bill of complaint; state of claim

特别程序  special procedures

提起公诉  institute a public prosecution

铁路法院  railway court

铁路检察院  railroad transport procuratorate

庭审程序  procedure of court trial

通缉  wanted for arrest

投案  appearance

退回补充侦查  return of a case for supplementary investigation

委托辩护  entrusted defense

未成年人法庭  juvenile court

无行政职务的法官  associate judge

无正当理由拒不到庭  refuse to appear in court without due cause

无罪判决  acquittal, finding of “ not guilty ”

物证  material evidence

先予执行申请书  application for advanced execution

先予执行  advanced execution

刑事案件  criminal case

刑事拘留  criminal detention

刑事强制拘留  criminal coercive/compulsory measures

刑事审判庭  criminal tribunal

刑事诉讼  criminal proceedings

刑事诉讼法  Criminal Procedural Law

刑事自诉状  self-incriminating criminal complaint

行政案件  administrative case

行政审判庭  administrative tribunal

行政诉讼  administrative proceedings

行政诉讼法  Administrative Procedural Law

宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件  cases concerning the declaration of disappearance and death

宣判笔录  record of rendition of judgement

选民资格案件  cases concerning qualifications of voters

询问证人  inquire/question a witness

训诫  reprimand

讯问笔录  record of interrogation

询问犯罪嫌疑人  interrogate criminal suspect

言词证据  verbal evidence

要求传唤证人申请书  application for subpoena

一裁终局  arbitration award shall be final and binding

一审  trial of first instance

一审案件  case of trial of first instance

应诉通知书  notice of respondence to action

有罪判决  sentence; finding of “guilty”

予审  preliminary examinantion; pretrial

原告  plaintiff

院长  court president

阅卷笔录  record of file review (by lawyers)

再审案件  case of retrial

再审申请书  petition for retrial

责令具结悔过  order to sign a statement of repentance

债权人会议  creditors’ meeting

侦查阶段  investigation stage

侦查终结  conclusion of investigation

征询原、被告最后意见  consulting final opinion of the plaintiff and defendant

证据  evidence

证据保全  preserve evidence

证据保全申请书  application for evidence preservation

证人证言  testimony of witness; affidavit

支付令  payment order/warrant

知识产权庭  intellectual property tribunal

执行程序  procedure execution

执行逮捕  execution of arrest

执行和解  conciliation of execution

执行回转  recovery of execution

执行庭  executive tribunal

执行异议  objection to execution

执行员  executor

执行中止  discontinuance of execution

执行终结  conclusion of execution

指定辩护  appointed defense

指定仲裁员声明  statement of appointing arbitrator

中级人民法院  intermediate People’s Court

中途退庭  retreat during court session without permission

仲裁  arbitration

仲裁被诉人  respondent; defendant

仲裁裁决  award

仲裁申请书  arbitration

仲裁申诉人  claimant; plaintiff

仲裁庭  arbitration tribunal

仲裁委员会  arbitration committee

仲裁协议  arbitration agreement; clauses of arbitration

仲裁员  arbitrator

主诉检察官  principal procurator

助理检察官  assistant procurator

助理审判员  assistant judge

专门法院  special court

专门管辖  specific jurisdiction

专属管辖  exclusive jurisdiction

追究刑事责任  investigate for criminal responsibility

自首  confession to justice

自诉案件  private-prosecuting case

自行辩护  self-defense

自由心证制度  doctrine of discretional evaluation of evidence

自侦案件  self-investigating case

最高人民法院  the Supreme People’s Court

最高人民检察院  the Supreme People’s Procuratorate

最后裁决书  final award

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