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Some Common Sentence Pattern in Medical Translation (2) 

3 倒装句 采用倒装词序的原因有二: (1) 由于一定语法结构的需要,如在疑问句中或在there be 句型中;(2) 由于强调某些词的需要,采用倒装词序,常见的有以下几种情况。 3.1 在以 only、never、no、little、rarely、hardly 等否定词或 well、often 等肯定词开头的句中。 Enlargement of the liver and spleen occurs early, but rarely are lymphnodes tender. 早期出现肝脾肿大,但淋巴结压痛确属罕见。 On no account should any medicine be given in such cases. 对这类病例决不应投用任何药物。 Often did we warn him not to smoke too much. 我们曾经常告诫他不要吸烟过多。 3.2 在以so 开头的肯定句, 表示“也如此”的概念时,句子必须倒装。以 nor 或 neither 开头的肯定句, 表示“……也不”的概念时,句子也应采取倒装词序。 She studies hard and so do other interns 她学习努力, 其他实习医生也如此。 It is not known how these agents act; nor is it clear what role they play 不知道这些因素如何起作用,也不了解它们能起什么作用。 3.3 当句子以many a time 开头时的倒装词序。 Many a time did we make blood count for the patient. 我们曾多次为那病人作血细胞计数。 Many a time has the doctor met with such cases. 那位医生曾多次遇到这类病例。 3.4 在表示“……是指……”时,经常使用动词 mean 的被动态,而且习惯采取倒装词序, 把 by 置于句首。 By immunity is meant the ability of the host to resist infection. 免疫就是指宿主对感染的抵抗力。 By metabolism is meant all the chemical changes going on in the human body. 新陈代谢是指人体内所进行的一切化学变化。 4 比较句 形容词和副词比较级的一般情况在翻译时较容易处理, 但它们也可用来表示一些其他的情况。 4.1 比较级+ than 用于同一主体的比较,表示对 than 后面成分的否定,可译为“不……而……”、“是……而不是……”,相当于 rather than。 The emphasis of this report lies in prevention more than in early detection of cancer. 这个报告的重点在于预防癌症,而不是早期发现癌症。 4.2 比较级前面有否定词(no、not 等)时, 实际上具有肯定的最高级含义, 常可按最高级来翻译。 In no area of medicine is accurate diagnosis more important, in many instances, more difficult. 在医学领域内,准确诊断是最重要的问题, 在许多情况下也是最困难的问题。 4.3 比较级+ than(主要为more than)有时也可译为“不仅”,如果前面有否定词,则可译为“仅仅”、“不过”。 Such operation requires more than the skill of a surgeon. 这种手术不仅仅需要外科医生的熟练技巧。 No known treatment modifies the course of the disease more than temporarily. 目前尚无改变此病病程的疗法,已有的疗法亦不过暂时见效而已。

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