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Some Common Sentence Pattern in Medical Translation (1) 

1 强调句 It is (was) ...that... 这是一种强调句型,用来强调“that 从句”前面的成分(主语、宾语、状语等),这个“that” 在指物时也可用“which,在指人时也可用 who (whom) 来代替that 。翻译时可把这种强调结构译为“是……”、“正是……”、“就是……”等。 It is the breast that is the leading organ site for cancer in American women. 乳房是美国妇女癌症的首先好发的器官位置。 It is when the body temperature is rising rapidly that the affected person may feel chilly. 正是在体温上升时患者可感觉发冷。 2 被动句 被动语态在医学英语中使用极广,凡是在不必、不愿或无从说明动作的主体时,在强调被动行为以及在便于连贯上下文的情况下,都可使用被动语态。英语被动句的翻译一般有以下几种处理方法: 2.1 可在动词前加“被”、“给”、“由”、“受”等词,译成汉语中带有被动意义的句子。 The disease is caused by a virus. 此病是由一种病毒引起的。 The swelling is often mistaken for a bone prominence. 这类肿胀常被误认为是一种骨隆突. 2.2 采用“把”、“将”、“使”等动词, 置于原文主语(受动者) 之前的方法, 译成汉语的主动句。 The blood flow maybe increased by more rapid and vigorous heart action. 心脏活动加快和增强可使血流增加。 2.3 一般带有情态动词can、may、must、should 等的被动句,可译成汉语的无主语句。 The patient with chronic bronchitis must be urged to stop smoking 必须力劝慢性支气管炎患者戒烟。 2.4 医学英语中使用以“it”作形式主语, 以被动语态作谓语, 其后接以由“that”引起的主语从句的表达方式是很常见的。这类习惯用语可一律汉译为主动结构, 即将原文中的主语从句置于译文中的宾语位置。有的可以不必加主语, 有的则必须加上表示泛指的主语, 如“有人”、“人们”或采用带有“据”字的结构。 It is estimated that more than 90 anti genetically different strains of known types of     respiratory viruses cause the common cold syndrome. 据估计, 在已知的呼吸道病毒中有90 种以上抗原不同的菌株能引起感冒综合征。 It has been suggested that early treatment of streptococcal infections with penicillin may prevent nephritis. 有人认为,用青霉素对链球菌感染作早期治疗可以预防肾炎。

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