It is (was) …that…
这是一种强调句型，用来强调“that 从句”前面的成分（主语、宾语、状语等），这个“that” 在指物时也可用“which，在指人时也可用 who (whom) 来代替that 。翻译时可把这种强调结构译为“是……”、“正是……”、“就是……”等。
It is the breast that is the leading organ site for cancer in American women.
It is when the body temperature is rising rapidly that the affected person may feel chilly.
The disease is caused by a virus.
The swelling is often mistaken for a bone prominence.
2.2 采用“把”、“将”、“使”等动词, 置于原文主语(受动者) 之前的方法, 译成汉语的主动句。
The blood flow maybe increased by more rapid and vigorous heart action.
2.3 一般带有情态动词can、may、must、should 等的被动句，可译成汉语的无主语句。
The patient with chronic bronchitis must be urged to stop smoking
2.4 医学英语中使用以“it”作形式主语, 以被动语态作谓语, 其后接以由“that”引起的主语从句的表达方式是很常见的。这类习惯用语可一律汉译为主动结构, 即将原文中的主语从句置于译文中的宾语位置。有的可以不必加主语, 有的则必须加上表示泛指的主语, 如“有人”、“人们”或采用带有“据”字的结构。
It is estimated that more than 90 anti genetically different strains of known types of respiratory viruses cause the common cold syndrome.
据估计, 在已知的呼吸道病毒中有90 种以上抗原不同的菌株能引起感冒综合征。
It has been suggested that early treatment of streptococcal infections with penicillin may prevent nephritis.
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