With the rapid development of world science and technology, we need to read and translate a great quantity of foreign scientific and technical literature to learn and use foreign advanced science and technology. Hydraulic Engineering is one of such fields and it is also an extensive subject with special characteristics.

Like other subjects, it has a large number of technical terms and it will be helpful if you master a lot of specialized vocabulary of this area. I just list some technical terms learnt from translation and divide them into following categories.

1. Engineering geology

河谷 river valley 河漫滩 flood plain 侵蚀阶地 erosion alter race 基座阶地 bed rock seated terrace 古河道 ancient river course 变质岩 metamorphic rock 片状构造 schistose structure 陆相 continental facies 残积 eluvial deposit 冰碛 glacial drift 褶皱 fold 背斜 anticline 向斜 syncline 断层上盘 hanging wall 断层下盘 heading wall 活断层active fault 构造体系 structural system 压性结构面 compressive structural plane 经向构造体系 meridional structural system 风化 weathering 滑坡壁 slip cliff 泥石流 debris flow 地壳 earth crust 地幔 earth mantle 构造地震 tectonic earthquake 火山地震 volcanic earthquake 陷落地震 collapse earthquake 水库诱发地震 reservoir induced earthquake

2. Survey and investigation for hydro-engineering

子午面 meridian plane 磁子午线 magnetic meridian 地图投影变换 map projection transformation 高斯投影方向改正(高斯投影曲率改正)correction for direction in Gauss projection 大地原点 geodetic datum 假定坐标系 assumed coordinate system 坐标方位角 coordinate azimuth 测量中误差 mean square error of angle observation 地球弯曲差 error due to curvature of earth 大气折光差 atmospheric refraction error 球气差 effect of earth curvature and refraction 国际分幅 international map subdivision 地物和地貌的表示 representation of planimetric feature and geomorphy 地性线 orographic character line 示坡线 slope indication line 电磁波测距仪 electromagnetic wave distance measuring instrument (EDMI)电子速测仪 electronic tacheometer 电磁波测距误差 error in electromagnetic wave distance measurement 水准器分划值 scale value of level 垂直度盘指标差 index error of vertical circle 垂线观测坐标仪 coordinatograph for plummet observation 传距边 side for transferring length 传距角 angle for transferring length 大地控制点 geodetic control point 图根点 mapping control point 视差法测距 subtense method with horizontal staff 边角网 combined network of triangulation and trilateration 秩亏自由网 free network with rank deficiency 加密高程控制 minor vertical control 直接平差 adjustment of direct observations 满秩平差 full rank adjustment 结点平差 adjustment of junction points 白纸测图 blank paper mapping 连续引张线法 method of continuous tension wire alignment 航空像片aerial photograph 解析测图仪 analytical stereo plotter 转点仪 point transfer instrument 彩红外片 infrared colour film

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3. Soil and water conservation

水土流失 soil erosion 侵蚀模数 modulus of erosion 洞蚀 cave and hole erosion 淤地坝 soil saving dam 谷坊 check dam 沟头防护 erosion control on the head of gully 山坡造林 afforestation on hillside 封山育林 closing hill for afforestation 床沙质 bed material load 产沙模量 modulus of sediment yield 泥沙性质 property of sediment 泥沙粒径 diameter of sediment 等容粒径 volume equivalent diameter 砂颗粒级配曲线 grain size-frequence distribution curve of sediment 含沙量沿程变化 longitudinal variation of sediment concentration 沙波阻力 form resistance of sand wave 静平床 stationary flat bed 高含沙水流和异重流 flow with hyper-concentrated sediment and density current 沙渠异重流 density current in canal 泥沙成型堆积体 structural sediment deposit 正常浅滩 normal shoal 交错浅滩 reciprocating shoal 复式浅滩 complex shoal 散乱浅滩 dispersive shoal 险滩 dangerous shoal 河床冲刷 scouring of river bed 河床展宽 widening of river bed 凹岸冲刷 scouring of concave bank 冲淤平衡 equilibrium between scouring and deposition 泥沙粗化 sediment size coursing 河相关系 hydraulic geometric relation of river 水流动力轴线 dynamic axis of flow 潮汐河口 tidal river mouth 浅滩整治 shoal training 护岸工程 bank protection works 控制流路 main current control 长期使用库容 long-term storage capacity of reservoir 水库回水变动区 fluctuating back water zone of reservoir

4. Hydro geology

包气带 aeration zone 毛细水 capillary water 自流水 artesian water 孔隙水 pore water 裂隙水 fissure water 地下热水 hot groundwater 矿化水 mineral water 压水试验 water pressure test 注水试验 injection test 等水位线图 water table contour map

5. Hydrometry and hydrological investigation

水文调查 hydro logical investigation 水文观测 hydro logical observation 湖泊水文测验 lake hydrometry 水文资料整编 hydro logical data processing 洪水痕迹 flood mark 枯水调查 low water investigation 水文站 hydro metrical station 水位站 water stage gauging station 降水日数 precipitation days 降水历时 duration of precipitation 水面蒸发量 evaporation from water surface 下渗强度 infiltration intensity 测点流速 velocity at a measuring point 测速垂线 verticals for measuring velocity 虚流量 virtual discharge 天文潮 astronomical tide 气象潮 meteorological tide 风暴潮 storm tide 小潮 neap tide 涌潮 tidal bore 潮位历时曲线 duration curve of tidal level 潮流量 tidal current discharge 冰雹 hail 冰暴 ice storm 冰屑 frazil ice 冰凌 ice run 冰盖 ice cover 冰塞 ice jam 冰坝 ice dam 冰流量 ice discharge 水文空间技术 space technology in hydrology 等雨量线图 isohyetal map 等径流深图 runoff isopleth map 综合单位过程线 synthetic unit hydro graph

6. Engineering geology

地质点 geological observation point 基岩 bed rock 覆盖层 over burden 地质剖面 geological section 钻头 drill bit 绳索取心 wire line coring 探坑 exploratory pit 探槽 exploratory trench 探井 exploratory shaft 放射性测井 radio activity logging 重力勘探 gravity prospecting 工程地质剖面图 engineering geological profile 工程地质条件 engineering geological conditions 定性评价 qualitative evaluation 定量评价 quantitative evaluation 岩体工程地质分类 engineering geological classification of rock mass 围岩失稳 lose stability of surrounding rock 岩爆 rock burst 水库塌岸 bank ruin of reservoir

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