For the Japanese translation, the understanding of the context, to grasp the extent of translation is to determine the success or failure is sometimes the key strengths and weaknesses. Context can be divided into absolute and relative context.
Depends on the so-called absolute and relative integrity of the original context. Statement is complete, the original meaning is entirely determined by the context of absolute context. Its context is not complete, the original meaning in the context of the human need to imagine, identified only after supplementary relative context.
General context of the text is definitely easier to translate, because the context has already decided what they mean. Context of the relative translation of the text is more difficult. Because the context itself is less clear, many people can imagine, added, speculation, and choice.
Let me cite one simple example, “look, the rain !” If you put it in context relative to people through their own imagination can be added to the context, expansion, and expanded in the context of the translation.
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This case can be understood as more than glad for the rain, can also be interpreted as dissatisfaction or surprise of the story. Even the size of rainfall, the rain season and who come from the mouth and other factors will affect people’s understanding and translation.
Thus we can say that out of the original environment, background, and sometimes the text relative to the context is not really interpret and, therefore, no translation. But this is not the thought of all the relative context of the text can not be translated.
Some of the text relative to context is completely translated into japanese. This is not only in practice but also workable in theory. Many people think that there is no context of the text is not translated, because they can not understand.
But in fact, many lack the full context of the text, the context can be limited by the logic and syntax analysis, the relative expansion of its context, its language of choice to narrow the scope to achieve read and translated the original purpose.
In other words, we can choose not only the absolute understanding of the immediate context to grasp the text, but sometimes you can turn the text to extend through the front of their relative context, and even launched its absolute context, in order to ensure correct understanding and translation.
Context of both the strong interpretation of the relative ability of the translator often pointed out that even an absolute context generated by mistranslation. In addition, from the translation practice, translation of the relative context is very difficult to avoid, as it is impossible to everything in the “absolute context” under the same. Thus, the relative context of translation studies is not only necessary but essential。
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In short, this reverse, from relative to absolute context, context practice, both in theory and in practice, have a certain sense, the problem for the translator, awareness and logical thinking ability, the strengthening of the translator of the foreign language skills, improve the quality of translation can not be underestimated role.
Relative to the specific context of interpretation and expansion done, can be divided into the following two approaches. First, the original logical analysis and reasoning, including the investigation, the use of the cultural background; Second, the original text parsing, grasp the relationship between the components. Of course, these two are not mutually independent. Sometimes they are inseparable. Therefore complement each other, and comprehensively, to extend the relative context, reach the purposes of understanding and translation.