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Word-class Conversion in E-C Legal Translation

The classification of English and Chinese words is almost the same; grammar functions have no much difference. However, during translation, word class of English and Chinese may not match each other accordingly. According to Chinese expression, nouns in English sometimes need to be translated into verbs in Chinese, adjectives in English need to be translated into adverbs in Chinese. Even in some circumstance, preparations in English can be translated as verbs in Chinese. That is to say, when translate English sentences, we should not pay too much attention in word class correspondence. Instead, we need to rebuild the same meaning use sentences in accordance with Chinese expression. Word class conversion is a way to reach this goal. In practice of English-Chinese law translation, noun-verb and adjective-adverb conversion are quite common to see. That is because verbs in Chinese sentence are quite active; there is always more than one verb. On the contrary, only one verb is permitted in English sentence. Thus, some nouns in English, especially those verbify nouns, can be translated as verbs in Chinese. Therefore, the combination of “adj + n” in English can be expressed as “adv + v” in Chinese. Following are some examples. Conversion of noun to verb: Unless otherwise provided for herein, failure or delay on the part of any party to exercise any right, power or privilege under this Agreement shall not operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise of any right, power or privilege preclude further exercise thereof or exercise of any other right, power or privilege. 除非本协议另有规定,任何一方未能延迟行使其在本协议项下的任何权利、权力或特权,不应视为其放弃该权利、权力或特权;单项或部分行使任何权利、权力或特权,亦不妨碍其进一步行使该权利、权力或特权或行使其他权利、权力或特权。 The confidentiality restrictions and obligations imposed by this Section X shall terminate two (2) years after the expiration or termination of this Agreement. 本条规定的保密限制和义务,在本协议期满终止两 (2) 年后终止。 Conversion of adjective to adverb: If one Party hereto shall commit any material breach of this Agreement or its representations and warranties hereunder and fail to remedy the breach within thirty (30) days of notice from the other Party requesting it to remedy such breach (if capable of remedy), or offer adequate compensation thereof, the other Party may terminate this Agreement immediately by notice to the Party in breach. 如果本协议一方实质性违反协议或其在本协议项下的陈述和保证,且在另一方向其发出要求其纠正违约行为(若可以纠正)通知后三十 (30) 日内未予以纠正,或为违约行为给予足够赔偿,则另一方可向违约方发出通知立即终止本协议。 Each Party shall provide the same care to avoid disclosure or unauthorized use of the other Party’s Confidential Information as it provides to protect its own similar proprietary information. 各方应谨慎行事,以防披露或擅自使用另一方的机密信息,犹如各方保护自己的类似专有信息。 Conversion of other word class: This Contract is subject to the approval of Examination and Approval Authority before the same may become effective. 本合同须经审批部门批准方能生效。(Adjective to verb) The rights conferred open the respective by the provisions of this Clause are additional to and do not prejudice any other rights the respective parties may have. 本条款规定赋予各方的权利,是对各方可能享有的其他权利的补充,而不是损害。(Adjective to noun) The Vendor shall not, within two (2) years after the Completion Date directly or indirectly solicit or entice away, employ or conclude any contract for services with any person who is or has been employed by the Company. 完成日后两 (2) 年内,卖方不得直接或间接招募、引诱或聘用现在是或曾经是公司雇员的任何人,或与其订立任何服务合同。(Vern to noun) The Disclosure Letter has fully and accurately disclosed all the matters which might materially and adversely affect the present or future value of the shares. 披露函充分、准确地披露了可能会对股份现在和将来的价值产生重大不利影响的所有事项。(Adverb + noun to adjective + noun)

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