Translate or Not: Repetition in Literary Translation (Cont)

Function, Type and Translation of Repetition As a figure of speech, repetition has the following major literature functions. Firstly, repetition can emphasize effectively. Secondly, repetition can make the expression intuitive and clearly, leaving deep impression on readers. Last but not the least, repetition can present atmosphere and render specific effect. Some scholars divided repetition in English into the following types: 1. Epizeuxis: combine some word or phrase one by one, with no other words between them. Young gentlemen, Never give up! Never give up! Never! Never! Never! Never! 年轻人啊,永远不要放弃!永远不要放弃!永不!永不!永不! 2. Anadiplosis, the same as 顶针 in Chinese. This, it seemed to him, was the end, the end of a world as he had known it… 这,在他看来,是一种终结,一个他所了解的世界的终结。 As the huge differences in English and Chinese expression, it is quite difficult to make equivalent translation. Thus, translators have to be left with nothing better than the second choice. But the Chinese translation for this sentence can also achieve the effect of source sentence. 3. Anaphora. A good example is a well-known sentence in I Have A Dream by Martin Luther King, Jr. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. 我梦想有一天,这个国家将会奋起,实现其立国信条之真谛:“我们认为这些真理不言而喻:人人生而平等。” 我梦想有一天,在佐治亚州的红色山岗上,昔日奴隶的儿子能够同昔日奴隶主的儿子同席而坐,亲如手足。 我梦想有一天,甚至连密西西比州 --- 一个非正义和压迫的热浪逼人的荒漠之州,也会改造成为自由和公正的青青绿洲。 4. Epistrophe. What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny compared to what lies within us. (Emerson) 过往的东西和未来的东西,相较于我们心灵深处的东西,都微不足道。 5. Mesodiplosis. We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed… (Second Epistle to the Corinthians) 我们四面受敌,却不被困住。我们心里作难,却不知失望。我们遭受逼迫,却不被丢弃。我们给打倒了,却不至死亡。 6. Diaphora: repetition of a title or name. The second appearance is the supplemental instruction of the former name or title. Because you have the most marvelous youth, and youth is the one thing worth having. (Wilde, 1997:18) 因为你有无与伦比的美貌青春,这是你最值得拥有的。(郑晓园、魏文峰译,2007:21)

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