Bulgarian is a member of the Slavic linguistic group, an Indo-European language.
Bulgarian owning several linguistic characteristics that make it different from all other Slavic languages, such as the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article, the lack of a verb infinitive. There are about 8.5 million to 9 millions people around the world who speak Bulgarian fluently The Bulgarian language is mutually intelligible with Macedonian.
Bulgarian was the first “Slavic” language attested in writing. As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, in the oldest manuscripts this language was initially referred to as “the Slavic language”. In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was gradually replaced by the name the “Bulgarian language”. The first mention of the language as the “Bulgarian language” instead of the “Slavonic language” comes in the work of the Greek clergy of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid in the 11th century, for example in the Greek hagiography of Saint Clement of Ohrid by Theophylact of Ohrid (late 11th century).
During the Middle Bulgarian period, the language underwent dramatic changes, losing the Slavonic case system, but preserving the rich verb system and developing a definite article. Consequently, modern Bulgarian is about as far from Russian as Swedish is from German. It was influenced by proto-Bulgar and its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan linguistic union and later also by Turkish, which was the official language of the Ottoman Empire, in the form of the Ottoman Turkish language, mostly lexically. As a national revival occurred towards the end of the period of Ottoman rule (mostly during the 19th century), a modern Bulgarian literary language gradually emerged which drew heavily on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian (and to some extent on literary Russian, which had preserved many lexical items from Church Slavonic) and later reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkanic loans. Today one difference between Bulgarian dialects in the country and literary spoken Bulgarian is the significant presence of Old Bulgarian words and even word forms in the latter. Russian loans are distinguished from Old Bulgarian ones on the basis of the presence of specifically Russian phonetic changes, as in оборот (turnover, rev), непонятен (incomprehensible), ядро (nucleus) and others. As usual in such cases, many other loans from French, English and the classical languages have subsequently entered the language as well.
Relationship to Macedonian
Most sources in and out of Bulgaria before the Second World War referred to the southern Slavonic dialect continuum covering the area of today’s Republic of Macedonia as a group of Bulgarian dialects. The local variants of the name of the language are balgàrtski, bolgàrtski, bulgàrtski, bogàrtski, bùgarski or bugàrski. After WWII, the question about the Bulgarian character of the language in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia was put aside in the name of Bulgarian. After 1958 when the pressure from Moscow decreased, Sofia reconsider that the Macedonian language did not exist as a separate language.
Bulgarian translation service
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