Besides attribute, present participial phrase and past participial phrase can also be used as adverbial in sentence. The same as adverbial clause, participial phrase can be used to indicate time, reason, result, condition, manner, accompany etc. Anyway, in legal document, when a participial phrase is used as adverbial, it is present participial phrase in most conditions. We divided them into the following types.

1. Participial phrase indicating result

The mixture among consumers, producers and government change constantly, making a dynamic rather than a static economy.


Countries that are more open to foreign competition and investment receive growth-promoting benefits in two ways: their firms become more competitive and efficient, raising productivity and incomes; and they also are in a better position to absorb technology from aboard.


2. Participial phrase indicating manner and accompany

A “Person” includes any individual, company, corporation, firm, partnership, joint venture, association, organization, trust, state or agency of a state (in each case, whether or not having separate legal personality).


Western thinking is linear, moving from goal to strategy to tactics, or from overview to details (or the reverse).


Read Also: Usage of Rhetoric in Advertisement and Translation

3. Participial phrase indicating time

When completed, the transaction shall be submitted to the competent authority for examination and approval.


If, having been so notified, the Seller does not terminate this Agreement, the Buyer’s right of recovery in respect of such breach shall be limited to the amount of its estimate.


4. Participial phrase indicating reason

Attracted by reports of great economic opportunities and religious and political freedom, immigrants from many other countries flocked to the United States in increasing numbers, reaching a peak in the years 1880-1914.


5. Participial phrase indicating purpose

One in five Americans moves to a new home every year seeking new jobs opportunities, a better climate, or for other reasons.


If, as a result of its corporate restructuring, Party A transfers its equity interest in the CJV to one of its newly founded affiliates (“Party A Affiliate”), Party A shall provided Party B with a written assurance guaranteeing the performance of the obligations under this Contract by Party A Affiliate.