On Several Types of Conversion Used in E-C Translation (II)

This article will further introduce different types of conversion used in E-C translation.

The following original texts all belong to one sentence pattern with no subject indicated. In this case, we had better put the “object” before the “verb” in the target text, which more complies with the expression mode of Chinese.

Example I

Original text:

How is an Ltd company established?




Example II

Original text:

The establishment of an LTD company is implemented through the so called “one stop service”.




Example III

Original text:

How are the Manager(s) appointed?




In the following two examples, if we directly translate the structure of modifying parts (like adjectives) + noun into the same structure, the readability of translation will be poor as shown in translation I. In this case, we had better translate such structures into the structure of subject/noun + modifying parts, which is more compliant with the expression mode of Chinese.

Example IV

Original text:

The General Meeting is in quorum and validly convenes when more than half of the total number of members, representing more than half of the total company’s paid-up capital, are represented or attending the meeting themselves.

Translation I:


Translation II:


Example V

Original text:

Open living and dining spaces have high quality Italian ceramic tiles.

Translation I:


Translation II:


Example VI

Original text:

The hair salon makes use of the renowned Paul Mitchell® line of hair care products, an ethically responsible company which supports numerous charities and promotes green living.

Translation I:


Translatin II:


The subsequent paragraphs will further give an introduction of another type of conversion used in E-C translation.

Example VII

Original text:

We have colleagues in different countries.

Translation I:


Translation II:


b. Conversion of characteristics of words

(I) The structure of “adjective + noun” in English could be translated into the structure of “adverb + verb/adjective” in Chinese.

The words in English are connected together by means of their logical relationship, usually leaving a sentence very long in written text. In this case, there may be several words in one sentence used to express the “motion”. However, only one predicate is allowed in a sentence in English.

How to solve this conflict? If the words are expressed in noun forms like the structure of “to do” or “doing”, the meaning of “motion” can be accurately expressed without the syntax broken. Consequently, there are many words with the noun characteristics which express the meaning of “motion” in English.

When we make E-C translation, we often need to translate these words with noun forms into verb. Therefore, we often need to translate the structure of “adjective + noun” in English into the structure of “adverb + verb/adjective” in Chinese.

The subsequent article will further display examples of this type of conversion and give an introduction of another type of conversion used in E-C translation.

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