Lithuanian Alphabet

Lithuanian alphabet is a modified Latin alphabet. Consists of the following 32 letters (in order):

  • A – the long or the short A (see the pronouncing rules above), [a / ā].
  • Ą (A nosinė) – long A, [ā].
  • B – like B in bag, [b / b’].
  • C – like English Ts (e.g. in Tsar), [ts / t’s’].
  • Č – like English Tsh (T and then sh), [tʃ / tʃ‘ / t’ʃ’].
  • D – like D in dog, [d / d’].
  • E – long or short E, (see the pronouncing rules below), [e / æ].
  • Ę (E nosinė) – long E, [æ].
  • Ė – is like German e and long (see the pronouncing rules below), [ē].
  • F – like English F or PH (e.g. in fog), [f / f’].
  • G – like G in golf, [g / g’].
  • H – like H in Hungary, [h / h’]
  • I – short i, like i in English big; i in a diphthong, like y in say, the palatalization mark [i / ǐ / i].
  • Į (I nosinė) – long i (see the pronouncing rules below), [ī].
  • Y (I ilgoji) – second long i (see the pronouncing rules below), [ī].
  • J – like Y in the English word young [j].
  • K – like K in Kilometer, [k / k’].
  • L – like L in long, [l / l’].
  • M – like M in Mike, [m / m’].
  • N – like N in november or N in link [n / n’ / ɳ /ɳ’].
  • O – long or (rare) short O, [ō / o].
  • P – like P in Pong, [p / p’].
  • R – like Spanish R, [r / r’].
  • S – like S in song, [s / s’].
  • Š – slightly less tight than English Sh (e.g. in Shell) [ʃ / ʃ’].
  • T – like T in Tango, [t / t’].
  • U – short u, like oo in English food, u in a diphthong, like w in cow [u / ǔ]
  • Ų (U nosinė) – long U, [ū].
  • Ū (U ilgoji) – long U, [ū].
  • V – medial sound between English [v] and [w]; [v / v’]].
  • Z – like Z in Zone, [z /z’].
  • Ž – voiced variant of Š, [ʒ / ʒ’], the sound in the middle of English “Treasure”.
  • Ch – these letters together are pronounced as an unvoiced variant of Lithuanian h, like ch in scottish loch, [χ / χ’ ].

The letters W, X and Q are not used in Lithuanian except in proper names (e. g. Washington’o miestas). The letters F, H and the digraph Ch are only used in loaned words, known in many European languages (e. g. Chemija)

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