The procedures in translating involve background preparation and actual translating process. Basic process in translating can be divided into four phases. The work can be done by a single person or by a team. I would like to explain the process in details.
1. Analysis of the source text. Comprehension and appreciation of the source text are fundamental to any attempts at translating. To ensure this, good command of two languages, considerable knowledge of the two cultures, and adequate knowledge of the subject matter are essential. The analysis of the source text means a detailed treatment of both the designative and associative meanings of the lexemes, the syntax, and the discourse structures and mainly involves 3 aspects: linguistic, logical and contextual.
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2. Transfer from source to target language The process of transfer involves the organization of the shift from thinking in the source language to thinking in the target language, which means the content has been “carried across”.
3. Restructuring in the target language The process of restructuring involves the organization of the lexical, syntactic, and discourse features of the transferred text so as to provide maximal comprehension and appreciation on the part of the intended readers. It should be an accurate and idiomatic representation of the sense, spirit and style of the source text in target language.
4. Revision The following steps are recommended for revision. a. Set aside the draft for some days: the preliminary text should be set aside for a week or so, in order that it can be treated as something new and can be more objectively evaluated without the echoes of the earlier rendering still ringing in one’s ears. b. Review the content: a careful review of the text for content, with special emphasis on accuracy and consistency of rendering.
Unnecessary additions can be eliminated and earlier oversights can be introduced. Special attention can be given to the consistent rendering of key concepts, and any awkward expressions can be altered. c. Set aside the draft again: the revised text should again be set aside for a few days. d. Review the style: the text should then be reviewed for style; in fact, in may be necessary to do this several times.
One very important technique is to the text aloud, since ears are much more sensitive to matters of cohesion and rhythm than eyes are. e. Review other details: the text must again be reviewed for other details, such as punctuation, format, and wrongly written or misused characters, words, or expressions.
Some translators mistakenly believe that they can combine review of the content, style, and other details, but it’s a wrong idea. Each of these aspects of the text should be reviewed separately. f. Submission after testing: submission to the client and/or publisher in some instances only after testing the translation with person who are presumably representatives of the readers for whom the translation has been prepared.
In the above processes, the translators should take into consideration a numbers of issues, such as:
*the specific requirements of the clients or the users
*the purpose and the use of the translation
*the function of the text
*the intended readers
In all, the process above plays an important role in a perfect translation work. Pay more attention to it and you will learn more !