Participial Phrase in E-C Translation (Cont)Besides attribute, present participial phrase and past participial phrase can also be used as adverbial in sentence. The same as adverbial clause, participial phrase can be used to indicate time, reason, result, condition, manner, accompany etc. Anyway, in legal document, when a participial phrase is used as adverbial, it is present participial phrase in most conditions. We divided them into the following types. 1. Participial phrase indicating result The mixture among consumers, producers and government change constantly, making a dynamic rather than a static economy. 消费者、生产者和政府三者的混合经常发生变化，因而产生的是动态经济，而不是静态经济。 Countries that are more open to foreign competition and investment receive growth-promoting benefits in two ways: their firms become more competitive and efficient, raising productivity and incomes; and they also are in a better position to absorb technology from aboard. 对外来竞争和投资更为开放的国家，从两个方面得到促进经济增长的好处：它们的企业更具竞争力，效率也更高，从而带动生产力和收入的增长，而且这些企业也能更好地吸收国外技术。 2. Participial phrase indicating manner and accompany A “Person” includes any individual, company, corporation, firm, partnership, joint venture, association, organization, trust, state or agency of a state (in each case, whether or not having separate legal personality). “人”，包括任何个人、公司、社团、商行、合伙企业、合资企业、协会、组织、托拉斯、国家或国家机构（无论是否具有独立的法人资格）。 Western thinking is linear, moving from goal to strategy to tactics, or from overview to details (or the reverse). 西方人的思维是线性的，从目标到战略再到战术，或者从概观到细节（或刚好相反）。 3. Participial phrase indicating time When completed, the transaction shall be submitted to the competent authority for examination and approval. 交易完成后，应报送主管部门审批。 If, having been so notified, the Seller does not terminate this Agreement, the Buyer’s right of recovery in respect of such breach shall be limited to the amount of its estimate. 如果接到该通知后，卖方不终止本协议，买方对于卖方的该等违约行为的追索权仅限于其估算的金额。 4. Participial phrase indicating reason Attracted by reports of great economic opportunities and religious and political freedom, immigrants from many other countries flocked to the United States in increasing numbers, reaching a peak in the years 1880-1914. 许多其他国家的人听说在美国经济上有很大的发展机会，还有宗教自由和政治自由，于是便纷纷移居美国，移民人数越来越多，1880-1914年达到了顶峰。 5. Participial phrase indicating purpose One in five Americans moves to a new home every year seeking new jobs opportunities, a better climate, or for other reasons. 每年每五个美国人中，就有一个迁往新的地方，为的是寻找新工作，换换气候，或者为了别的原因。 If, as a result of its corporate restructuring, Party A transfers its equity interest in the CJV to one of its newly founded affiliates (“Party A Affiliate”), Party A shall provided Party B with a written assurance guaranteeing the performance of the obligations under this Contract by Party A Affiliate. 如果由于甲方进行公司重组而将其在合作经营企业中的股权转让给其新成立的关联公司之一（“甲方关联公司”），则甲方应向乙方提供书面保证，以确保甲方关联公司履行本合同项下的义务。
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