Italian grammar is like that of the other Western Romance languages, especially similar to the modern French grammar. It shows agreement of adjectives and nouns, the use of definite and indefinite articles, loss of noun declension for case, two genders (masculine and feminine), and an elaborate system of perfect and progressive tenses for the verb. As in French (see…), the compound tenses are constructed with the verb ‘to be’ (essere) for the intransitive (as morire to die, nascere to be born, partire to depart, venire to come etc.) and pronominal verbs (as lavarsi to wash myself etc.) or with the verb ‘to have’ (avere) for the transitive verbs. Similar to French, Italian has a partitive article and uses pronominal adverbs.

The most notable difference between Italian and French or Spanish is that it does not use -s or -es to form the plural of nouns but instead uses -e for most feminine words and -i for masculine words (and some feminine words). There is a theory that Italian formed in its earliest times the plural mainly with -s as other Romance languages, but a palatalisation phenomenon caused the passages: *-as => -e; *-es => -i.


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