In English, attributive clause can be divided into restrictive and non-restrictive, following antecedent. These two kinds of attributive clause are different in form: there are no comma between restrictive attributive clause and antecedent; while non-restrictive attributive clause is separate with antecedent with a comma.

Another difference is: restrictive attributive clause is close related with antecedent, while non-restrictive attributive clause is not that close with antecedent in meaning.

As a result, restrictive attributive clause is always translated into pre-modifier in Chinese; non-restrictive attributive clause is often translated into postposition coordinate clause, to describe or illustrate the antecedent.

Examples of restrictive attributive clause:

It is estimated that over 3,000 companies (including non-technology companies) which have completed initial public offerings of stock in the United States over the past two decades have received venture capital at some point in their development.

据估计,过去 20 年中在美国完成首次公开发售股票的 3,000 多家公司(包括非技术公司)在其发展的某个阶段,曾获得过风险资本。

Any Proprietary Information obtained by the CJV or a Party or its affiliates may be disclosed only to the designated employees of the CJV or that Party and its affiliates whose duties so require for the implementation of this Contract.


In instances where such control does not otherwise exist by virtue of the venture capitalist’s equity ownership or Board representation, control over certain corporate actions is often obtained through contractual agreement between the venture capitalist and the company.


Read Also: The Sequence in Translation

Examples of non-restrictive attributive clause:

No matter it is lead by relative pronoun or relative adverb, non-restrictive attributive clause is always translated into coordinate clause, to give more information.

Neither Party hereto shall assign this Agreement or any of its rights and interests hereunder without the other Party’s prior written consent, which shall not be unreasonably withheld.


Many aspiring to be elected as the party candidate employ top public relations and advertising men, who invent clever catch phrases and set about “selling” their man.


It is estimated that a majority of the funding currently committed to venture capitalist entities has been provided by public or private pension funds, which are allocating increasing percentages of investment funds to “alternative investments” such as venture capital.


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