There are two kinds of participial phrase: present participial phrase and past participial phrase. These two participial phrases are simple in structure, thus are quite common to see in English. In translation, we should pay more attention to such phrases used as attribute and adverbial.

Participial phrase used as attribute: translated into attribute in Chinese

No matter it is present participial phrase or past participial phrase, it can be used as attribute in sentence. This kind of phrases is usually translated into modifier.

Each Party agrees to use Confidential Information received from the other Party only for the purpose contemplated by this Agreement and for no other purpose.


A Party claiming force majeure has the burden to prove the direct relationship between the force majeure and the nonperformance of its obligations under this Contract.


While there are literally thousands of stocks, the ones bought and sold most actively are usually listed on the New York Stock Exchange.


Participial phrase used as attribute: some other translation methods

Read Also: Participial Phrase in E-C Translation (Cont)

The same as attributive clause, when translating participial phrase used as attribute, it is very flexible. Not all of such phrase can be translated into attributive in Chinese, especially when it is burdensome and not applicable in Chinese expression habit. In these situations, we can use some other translation methods, to translate it into complement or a clause.

Government, at the federal, state, and local level, seeks to promote the public security, assure fair competition, and provide a range of services believed to be better performed by public rather than private enterprises.


The formation of this Contract, its validity, interpretation, execution and settlement of disputes in connection herewith shall be governed by the laws of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”), but in the event that there is no published and publicly available law in the PRC governing a particular matter relating to this Contract, reference shall be made to general international commercial practices.