In order to achieve excellent translation, we are not only have to own a good English thinking habits, but also good Chinese words control ability. A high level English people, not necessarily have the good ability for translation; Likewise a high level Chinese people, not necessarily have strong ability for translation; However, a high level of translation person, absolutely owns strong English and Chinese level.
Before to do the translation, we must first think of the meaning of the sentence, and then choose the appropriate translation way according to the characteristics of the sentence, which is the so-called reverse thinking. If one even did not understand the sentence structure, then no need to mention the correct understanding of the original text, and accurate, complete, fluent translation at all. Let’s sum up the difficulties of translation sentence structure, how to use reverse thinking during our work.
English prefer to omitting, and the Chinese like to repeat, which is a clear distinction. English to Chinese translation, in order to make the translation “faithful and fluent”, we need to understand on the basis of the original omitted components, then according to the Chinese Expression, supplementary or flexibly deal with the omitted part.
It is said that the English omitted phenomenon can be summarized in two dozen. Overall, however, which generally follow two important principles: (1) The context has to provide clear information which no need to appear again can be omitted; (2) The component which appear before, would not cause any misunderstanding or ambiguity, then can be omitted.
Component segmentation of words or sentences is also common to see in the English custom. Segmentation is a grammatical phenomenon that the words or sentence elements should be closely linked are divided by other words or ingredients. In the divided part, one remains in the original position, and another portion is away from the position which it belongs.
There are two common situations: the segmentation of the sentence elements and phrases. The sentence elements segmentation mainly include the following situations: the division of subject and predicate, the predicate and object segmentation, appositive or appositive clause and its antecedent segmentation, attributive or attributive clause and its antecedent segmentation. Words segmentation mainly refers to verbs or nouns with prepositions, preposition which required and its object segmentation.
III. The clause
Clause is the main unit of the English complex sentence structure. Accordance with the ingredients in the sentence, the clause can be divided into subject clause, the predicative clause, the object clause, appositive clause, attributive clause and adverbial clause.
In general, most of the clause can be translated directly; However, the function of the logical relationship of some clause in the sentence does not necessarily coincide with its formal function, such as attributive clause, Regarding this kind of clause, we need to follow the logical relationship, but not in accordance with the surface functions.
If necessary, we should according to the habits of the Chinese thinking and expression, to adjust the main clause and the clause order appropriately.
IV. The “negation” disposal
The negative grammatical phenomena are both existed in English and Chinese languages, but the two are very different on the expression ways. There are many forms in English, commonly are: (1) all negative; (2) partial negative; (3) double negative; (4) formal recognition, in fact deny; (5) formally denied virtually certain ; (6) negative transfer; (7) exclude negative; (8) fixed sentence structure, and so forth; While English to Chinese translation, regarding the English negative structure, we should consider from the negative sense of the word itself, the specific context to be taken into account, otherwise it may cause misunderstanding.