Lexis translation is a very important part in . The basic and necessary condition of a good translation lies greatly in knowing the usage of lexis. Following are some Skills for Translation of the lexis.
1. Translation of Abbreviations:
Abbreviations occur as the need of convenient language use, especially in today’s society to which efficiency is given priority. Generally, Abbreviations are short form of the original lexis. It is more concise and easy to memorize. Therefore, Abbreviations are widely used in businesses to improve the work efficiency and to make contract concise. Hereafter are some ways of translating abbreviation by providing examples.
Translation according to the meaning:
Generally, many abbreviations consist of the capital letters of words or phrases. Therefore, in translation, the full form of the words or phrases should be found and then it is easy to grasp the overall meaning. Such as,
F.O.B (free on board) COD (cash on delivery)
IMF (International Monetary Found) W.P.A (with particular average)
For such words or phrases, the first letters are usually written together to improve efficiency. However, when translated into Chinese, the full meaning of the phrases must be expressively translated. In the examples above, they are “离岸价”, “货到付款”, “国际货币基金组织”and “单独海损” respectively.
The transliteration of Abbreviations:
For some Abbreviations, it is too long or too complicated to translate them according to the meaning. Therefore, we can use the transliteration method. Such as,
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries 欧佩克)
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation艾佩克)
UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization联合国教科文组织)
For instance, if the full meaning of OPEC is translated word by word, it is difficult to memorize or use. Therefore, the method of transliteration provides a good tool for translating the long and complex lexis.
2. Amplification and Omission of Lexis in Translation:
Amplification of lexis in translation:
Amplification is one of the most significant translation methods. Its aim is to add some necessary words in translation to express the content fully and clearly or to make the whole content easy to be understood.
E.g. As to direct and indirect exporting, which approach is best depends on such factors as the companies size, its export volume, the number of foreign country involved, the investment required to support the operation, the profit potential, the risk present, and the desires of the oversea buyers.
In English-Chinese translation, some implied word should be translated in Chinese to confirm to the Chinese’s habits of using language. For instance, when translating the “companies size”, “export volume”, “profit potential”, “risk present” stated in the sentence above, some necessary words should be added to express the content expressively, such as “大小”, “多少”. Though these words are not necessary in English, they should be translated out into Chinese.
Omission of lexis in translation:
Omission means omitting the redundant lexis when translated into other language. Compared with English, pronouns and conjunctions are seldom used in Chinese. Therefore, in English-Chinese translation, the use of pronouns and conjunctions should be controlled reasonably, or the translation will be unnatural and influent. However, all kinds of lexis can be omitted if the translation confirms to the Chinese’s habits of using language. Importantly, the omission should accord to the specific context.
E.g. the retailers perform many functions. First, he may provide a convenient location. Also, he often guarantees and services the merchandise he sells. Third, the retailers aids in promoting the products, often through displays and advertising. Fourth, the retailers may finance the customer by extending credit. Further, the retailer performs storage function in his outlet, by having goods available.
In this example, the retailers are used as subjective in every sentence. If it is fully translated in every sentence, the contract may be seen as unprofessional or concise-less. Therefore, in order to make the contract more concise, some redundant lexis has been omitted in its Chinese translation.