1. for

a. for 引导的介词短语表目的、用途,在句中做状语时,可译为“为了”、“用于”、“用来”、“适合于”等。For 引导的表示目的的介词短语常译为动宾结构,但需按照汉语习惯注意灵活翻译。

The smelting reduction process can be applied for the production of iron as well as ferroalloys.


b. for 引导的介词短语做定语时,常可译为“的”字结构。但因表达需要,“的”常常省略。

The temperature coefficient of the resistance is positive for metals and negative for semiconductors.


c. 表示所涉及的对象,可译为“对于”、“对…而言(来说)”。

For the lighter elements the absorption coefficient is approximately proportional to the density of the material.


d. 表示理由或原因,可译为“因(为)、由于”等

It is for this reason that we decide not to buy Japanese goods any more.


e. 表示交换或交替,可译为“换”、“用…代替”、“代表”等,也可省译或灵活翻译。

For improved frequency stability, quartz crystals may be substituted for one of the circuit reactances.

为了改进频率稳定度,可以用石英晶体代替电路的某个电抗。(第一个 for 表示目的,译为“为了”;第二个for表示交换,译为“用…代替”)
f. 表示时期或距离,介词for可省译

For a long time she can’t see her husband who is an army man。


g. for all + 名词,表示让步,“尽管”、“”即使等。

For all its great potential, the wide use of optical communications will not come overnight.


2. of(切忌不要看到“of”就翻译成“的”,可灵活翻译!!!)

a. 名词+of+名词结构,表示与某人、某事有关,常常可先翻译of后面的名词,并将介词of译成“对”、“对于”,也可译为“关于”、“在……方面”等(或灵活翻译)。切忌不要看到“of”就翻译成“的”,可按照这一点灵活翻译!!!

The very concept of black holes confuses our common sense notion of matter, time and space.


b. 表示所属关系,结构为“be+of+名词”,可译为“属于”或省译。

A radio wave is of the same family as heat waves, light waves, X-rays and gamma rays.

无线电波与热波、光波、X 射线和伽马射线一样都属于同一族系。

c. 表示部分或个体与全部的关系,可译为“在……中”、“中的”等。

Of all these waves, those we recognize as visible light are only a tiny part.


d. 表示原料,可译为“用……(制成)”、“由……(构成)”等。常见词组“be made of”、“consist of”、“composed of”等。

This region can be considered to consist of surface atoms and subsurface atoms.


e. 表示数量,结构为“a(或数词、代词)+名词+of”,根据内容灵活翻译数词与量词。

A portion of salt is a suitable specimen for the study of crystalline structure.


Machining requires two kinds of tools: work-holding devices and cutting tools.