Ukraine is in the east of Europe, located in the Black Sea to the South, Belarus to the North, Russia to the North East, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the West. It is the second largest Union Republic before the collapse of the Soviet Union (Russia is the largest). With the total area of 603,700 square kilometers, it has 48,910,000 populations (at the end of Jan. 1st, 2002). There are more than 110 nationalities, Ukrainian people is about 72.7%, Russian people is about 21%, and the remaining are Byelorussian, Jews, Polish, Romanian et ct. Five cities has the population of more than 1,000,000: Kiev, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Odessa and Kharkiv.
Economic Profile of Ukraine
There are abundant mineral resources in Ukraine, especially coal resource in Donets Basin, iron resource in Kryvyi Rih, petroleum in the Carpathian Mountains region. There is also small quantity of natural gas and nonferrous metal, such as manganese, chromium, titanium, aluminum, zinc. Also some other chemical resources are very rich, as mercury and salt.
Brief History of Economy
Ukraine is the second largest economy in the former Soviet Union, with well-developed agriculture and industry and scientific culture. In Year 1990, national wealth is about 756 billion ruble, which is of 16.8% of the whole Soviet Union. Compare with Russia, agriculture in Ukraine is more developed; industrial proportion is relatively smaller, and agriculture proportion is relatively bigger. In 1990, among the 195.9 billion gross output value of industry and agriculture, industry is with 75% and agriculture is with 25%. The former one is lower than the average level of the Soviet Union (80.8%), while the latter is above the average level of the Soviet Union (19.2%).
The language of Ukrainian
Ukrainian is the only official language in Ukraine. It belongs to East Slavic languages, the same family with Russian. During several centuries, Tsar and some people of former Soviet Union obstruct the development of Ukrainian. But Ukrainian is still used widely in the West and Central of Ukraine (actually everyone can speak Russian). Nowadays, Russia is still the most popular language in Kiev, Eastern Ukraine and Crimea. But the government now is trying to use every chance to revive Ukrainian, especially in school education.
Ukrainian has many common places with Russian in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. Still, there are many differences, as Ukrainian is more complicated and with more variations.
Capital letters: А Б В Г Д Е € € Ж З И € € € € Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ю Я Ь
Lower case letters: а б в г д е € € ж з и € € € € й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ю я ь
Ukrainian is a kind of inflected language, and its morphology is very complicated.
Nouns in Ukrainian have three genders:
1. nouns ended with consonant are mostly masculine gender, such as: л€€с (forest), герб (badge), чолоб€€к (man)
2. nouns ended with ая are mostly feminine nouns, such as: мова (language), посм€€шка (smile), п€€сня (song)
3. nouns ended with оеннямня are mostly neuter, such as: р€€здво (Christmas), море (sea), €€’мня (name), знання (knowledge)
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