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Translation of "shall"

About the word “shall”, there are many translation ways in legal contract terms, generally, which is translated as “须” “应”, sometimes “应当”, or “要”, “将”, “可”,”必须”, and sometimes omit the translation. There are some examples as follows:

1.Shipment: The Date of the Bill of Lading shall be accepted as a conclusive evidence of the date of shipment.

付运:提货单的日期须被承认为付运日期的确实证据。

2.One who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in the joint crime. One who instigates a person under the age of eighteen to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.

教唆他人犯罪的,应当按照他在共同犯罪中起的作用处罚。教唆不满十八岁的人犯罪的,应当从重处罚。(刑法)

3.If the Buyers fail to notify and/or forward full details within the period specified above, the Buyers shall be deemed to have waived their right to assert any claim.

如果买方未能在上述规定的期间内通知和(或)寄出完整的细节,那么买方将被认为放弃提出任何索赔的权利。

4.In the event the Buyers’ such appointment does not arrive in time, the Sellers’ system of inspection shall be final and binding upon the parties concerned.

万一买方对这种委托未能及时到达,卖方的检查制度将是决定性的并对有关各方有约束力。

5.Quantity, unless otherwise arranged, shall be subject to a variation of 5% plus or minus at Seller’s option.

量:除非另作安排,量可由卖方选择作加或减5%的变动。

6. …Such compensation shall correspond to the real value of the property concerned and shall be freely convertible and paid without undue delay.…

征用财产的补偿应相当于该财产当时的实际价值,可自由兑换,不得无故迟延支付。

7.The Purchaser shall, upon receipt of Corporation’s respective invoices therefor, pay to Corporation all amounts which become due by the Purchaser to the Corporation hereunder, including without limitation an amount equal to the taxes and duties.

收到公司的各种发票后,买方必须立刻付给公司已到期应付的所有款项,包括各种税收费用在内,不得有例外。

8.The contractor shall be entitled to use for the purpose of the works such supplies of electricity and water as may be available therefor on the site and shall pay the purchaser such as may be reasonable in the circumstances, and shall at his own expense provide any apparatus necessary for such use.

承包商有权利用工地上原有的供电供水进行施工,但须向业主交纳合理的水电费,并要自己承担用去安装供电供水所需仪表。

9.The Board shall have such jurisdiction and powers as are conferred on it by this or any other Ordinance.

仲裁处具备本条例或任何其他条例授予仲裁处的司法管辖权及权利。

10.All Hong Kong residents shall be equal before the law.

香港居民在法律面前一律平等。

As listed above, there are at least 8 translation way, therefore we should handle it flexibly as per context.

Words translated by CCJK

146,096,379

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