Translation of "shall"

About the word “shall”, there are many translation ways in legal contract terms, generally, which is translated as “须” “应”, sometimes “应当”, or “要”, “将”, “可”,”必须”, and sometimes omit the translation. There are some examples as follows:

1.Shipment: The Date of the Bill of Lading shall be accepted as a conclusive evidence of the date of shipment.


2.One who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in the joint crime. One who instigates a person under the age of eighteen to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.


3.If the Buyers fail to notify and/or forward full details within the period specified above, the Buyers shall be deemed to have waived their right to assert any claim.


4.In the event the Buyers’ such appointment does not arrive in time, the Sellers’ system of inspection shall be final and binding upon the parties concerned.


5.Quantity, unless otherwise arranged, shall be subject to a variation of 5% plus or minus at Seller’s option.


6. …Such compensation shall correspond to the real value of the property concerned and shall be freely convertible and paid without undue delay.…


7.The Purchaser shall, upon receipt of Corporation’s respective invoices therefor, pay to Corporation all amounts which become due by the Purchaser to the Corporation hereunder, including without limitation an amount equal to the taxes and duties.


8.The contractor shall be entitled to use for the purpose of the works such supplies of electricity and water as may be available therefor on the site and shall pay the purchaser such as may be reasonable in the circumstances, and shall at his own expense provide any apparatus necessary for such use.


9.The Board shall have such jurisdiction and powers as are conferred on it by this or any other Ordinance.


10.All Hong Kong residents shall be equal before the law.


As listed above, there are at least 8 translation way, therefore we should handle it flexibly as per context.


Words translated by CCJK


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