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New Technologies 新技术 Some new technologies are frightening from the start, and the need to establish political controls over their development and use is obvious to all. 有些新技术在面世之初时让人恐慌,对其的研发和使用实行政治管制的需求已是人尽皆知。 When the first atomic bomb was detonated at Alamogordo, New Mexico, in the summer of 1945, not one of the witnesses to this event failed to understand that a terrible new potential for destruction had been created. 1945 年夏,第一颗原子弹在新墨西哥州的阿拉摩哥多爆炸,此事件的见证者无一预见到这已经酝酿了一场残酷而潜在的新一轮毁灭。 Nuclear weapons were thus from the very beginning ringed with political controls: Individuals could not freely develop nuclear technology on their own or traffic in the parts necessary to create atomic bombs, and in time, nations that became signatories to the 1968 nonproliferation treaty agreed to control international trade in nuclear technology. 核武器一开始就被列入政治管制范围:个人被禁止自主研发核技术或传输制造原子弹所需部件。同时,1968 年核不扩散条约的签署国同意管制核技术国际贸易。 Other new technologies appear to be much more benign, and are consequently subject to little or no regulation. 其他新技术似乎更友善点,因此只受到稍微管制或几乎没有管制。 Personal computers and the Internet, for example, promised to create wealth, increase access to information, and foster community among their users. 如个人电脑和网络承诺创造财富、增加信息获取量以及在用户间建立社区。 People have had to look hard for downsides to the information revolution. 人们很难发现信息革命的负面影响。 What they have found to date are issues like the so-called “digital divide” (i.e., inequality of access to information technology) and threats to privacy, neither of which qualify as earth-shaking matters of justice or morality. 至今为止,他们发现的只有诸如所谓的“数码分割”(即对信息技术的非均等使用)及对隐私的威胁,但是不管哪个方面都算不上是对公平或道德有翻天覆地的影响。 Despite occasional efforts on the part of the world’s more statist societies to try to control the use of information technology, it has blossomed in recent years. 尽管代表中央集权更浓厚的社会偶尔试图控制信息技术的使用,但是信息技术反而在近年来蓬勃发展。

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