three principal steps of translation

The principal steps of translation(English-Chinese) are: reading comprehension, Chinese expression, proof and polish. It must be following the original but in accordance with Chinese custom , and should abide by the below principles. 1)    Thoroughly understand the original when reading comprehension, it is useful to analyze grammar and help understand the logic level of the sentence. Eg. Too often we believe what accounts for other's success is some special secret or a lucky break. But rarely is success so mysterious. 我们常常相信别人的成功是由于某种特殊的奥秘或是由于某种机遇。但成功极少是如此神秘的。 Analysis: the main structure of the sentence is ”We believe …… is some …….” ,“Too often” is adverbial, to emphasize in advance, and “What accounts for ... ... success” is   the subject of the “believe” ‘s object clause, but is guided by the “What”, “account for “ is a phrase, meaning "instructions" , "prove". So the logic relationship of the whole sentence is: We believe what accounts for other's is some special secret or a lucky break. 2)To Chinese expression, it should be understand the exact meaning of the puzzling word or extended meaning. "Extended" means word will be deepened when translating to get a “new meaning” to express original implication. English and Chinese language use different ways to express, sometimes very different. It can not find the same meaning expression of the phrase translation in translating, if copy original  sample mechanically, and translate in isolation, the translation would obscure or ambiguous. According to the context to extend the word’s meaning and add new meaning , choose the appropriate meaning to express, on the surface, it seems beyond the scope of original meaning, but in fact it can be able to more accurately express the original meaning. Eg. A creative person will almost never follow a set pattern in developing an idea. To do so would tend to structure his thinking and might limit the creation of possible solutions. 一个有创造性的人在形成一种想法时,决不会按照一种固定不变的方式行事。因为那样做就会束缚他的思想,妨碍他找出各种解决方案。 Analysis: in the translation of the sentence, these words “develop (original meaning is "发展"),” “structure (original meaning is "构造")”, “limit (original meaning is "限定") “ are all added new meaning for needs. It make the translation conform to Chinese language  custom and get more popularity and smooth. 3)    to combine context and background knowledge when checking and modifying, respect Chinese language custom Weigh the original sentence structure when checking and modifying, get suitable combinations, and adjust the word order in accordance with Chinese custom, and strive to express accurately to achieve the unity of content and style. Eg. Last night an uninvited guest turned up to make five for bridge. I had the kind of paper book at hand to make being the fifth at bridge a joy. 昨晚有位朋友不请自到,使桥牌桌上多一个人,我身边有一本书,使我尽管没有打牌也过得愉快。 Analysis: when translating the English sentence, it must be not only to clarify the sentence structure and the meaning of the phrase, such as:” turn up (出现,露面)”, “at hand (在手边)”, but also to understand some background knowledge, ie: playing bridge, only need four person. In this way, appropriate adjust the translation, and it will be get just to the point.

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