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the translations of "shall" in Law English

现有英语合同和合同译文中的shall,在汉语中有很多种译法,通常被译作“须”、“应”,有时被译成“应当”,也有时译成“要”、“将”、“可”,还有时被译成“必须”,甚至被完全忽略不译。 请见以下示例: 例1 The Chief justice of the Court of Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of the High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Shall be Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of the Region. In addition to the procedure prescribed in Article 88 and 89 of this Law, the appointment and removal of judges of the Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be made by the Chief Executive with the endorsement of the Legislative Council of the Region and reported to the Standing Committee of the National people’s Congress of the record.            香港特别行政区终审法院和高等法院的首席法官,由在外国无居留权的香港特别行政区永久性居民中的中国居民担任。除本法第八十八条和八十九条规定的程式外,香港特别行政区终审法院和高等法院首席法官的任命和免职,还由行政长官征得立法会同意,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。 例 2 选出或罢免人民检察长,须报上级人民检察院检察长提请该级人民代表大会常务委员会批准。 The election or recall of chief procurators of people’s procuratorates shall be reported to the chief procurators of the people’s procurators at the next higher level for submission to the standing committees of the people’s congresses at the corresponding level for approval. 例 3 Shipment: The Date of the Bill of Lading shall be accepted as a conclusive evidence of the date of shipment. 付运:提货单的日期须被承认为付运日期的确实证据。 例 4 教唆他们犯罪的,应当按照他在共同犯罪中所起的作用处罚。教唆不满十八岁的人犯罪的,应当从重处罚。 One who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in the joint crime. One who instigates a person under the age of eighteen to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment. 例 5 If the buyers fail to notify and/or forward full details within the period specified above, the Buyers shall be deemed to have waived their right to assert any claim. 如果买方未能在上述规定的期间内通知和(或)寄出完整的细节,那么买房将被认为放弃提出任何索赔的权利。 例 6 In the event the Buyers' such appointment does not arrive in time, the Sellers' system of inspection shall be final and binging upon the parties concerned. 万一买方这种委托未能及时到达,卖方的检查制度是决定性的并对有关各方有约束力。 例 7 Quantity, unless otherwise arranged, shall be subject to a variation of 5% plus or minus at Seller’s option. 量:除非另作安排,量由卖方选择作加或减 5% 的变动。 例 8 Such compensation shall correspond to the real value of the property concerned and shall be freely convertible and paid without undue delay. 征用财产的补偿相当于该财产当时的实际价值,可自由兑换,不得无故延迟支付。 例 9 The Purchaser shall, upon receipt of Corporation’s respective invoices therefor, pay to Corporation all amounts which become due by the Purchaser to Corporation hereunder, including without limitation an amount equal to the taxes and duties. 收到公司的各种发票后,买方必须立刻付给公司业已到期应付的所有款项,包括各种税收费用在内,不得有例外。 例 10 The contractor shall be entitled to use for the purpose of the works such supplies of electricity and water as may be such sums as may be reasonable in the circumstances, and shall at his own expenses provide and apparatus necessary for such use. 承包商有权利用土地上原有的供电供水进行施工,但向业主交纳合理的水电费,并要自己承担费用去安装供电供水所用仪表。 例 11 The Broad shall have such jurisdiction and powers as are conferred on it by this or any other Ordinance. 仲裁处具备本条例或任何其它条例授予仲裁处的司法管辖权及权力。 例 12 All Hong Kong residents shall be equal before the law. 香港居民在法律面前一律平等。

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