在非真实条件从句中的动词虚拟语气可分为三类：(1) were 型（表示与现在事实相反）； (2) should be 型（表示与将来事实相反）；(3) had been 型（表示与过去事实相反）。如果将这类条件从句中的w ere、should、had 提前置于句首，则可将连词 if 省略而成为不完全省略句。
If the capillaries of the lung were joined end to end，they would form a minute tube some 3000 miles long.
如果将肺的毛细血管衔接起来，就会形成一条长约 3000 哩的细管。
What would be done if the patient should develop allergy to penicillin?
If he had been inoculated against smallpox, he would not have contracted the disease.
Had the patient followed the doctor’s advice, he would have recovered long ago.
5.2 were 型虚拟语气可用于wish 后接的宾语从句中表示动作不可能实现或实现可能性不大；也可用于 as if、as though 引起的方式状语从句，表示并非真实情况。
I wish I were younger.
The heart works as if it were a pump.
5.3 should be 型虚拟语气在其他从句中的应用
should be 型虚拟语气可用在主语从句中，常见的句型有：It is necessary that，It is recommended that，表示“建议”、“要求”、“必须”做的事。从句中的 should 有时可省略。
It is important that the malignant tumour be removed as thoroughly as possible in surgery to avoid its metastasis and recurrence.
With any change of structure, whether it be microscopic or macroscopic, there is some degree of change of function.
只要结构发生任何变化, 不论肉眼能否看得见, 在功能上也会有某种程度的变化。
6 what 引起的名词性从句
what 常可用来引起主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句。但应注意what 引起这几种从句时有两种情况。
(1) what 用作疑问代词性的连接代词，what 表示的是一个问题，应汉译为“什么”、“什么样的”，有时也可不译出。
(2) what 用作关系代词性的连接代词，意义相当于 that which (those which) 或the thing which、the man (men) who，可以译为“所……的(事物)。”
The difficulty is to know what we mean by a virus.
What has been found by necropsy is of utmost importance.
The cancer patient is not what he was a few months ago
7 It 作形式主语的句型当动词不定式、动名词或从句作主语时，通常把它们放在谓语之后，而用一个引导词 it 放在句首，作形式主语。此处的 it 没有实际意义，可以省略不译。
It is useless to apply chemo therapy at this period of time.
It is necessary to have his chest X2 rayed
It is certain that more and more diseases which are incurable for the time being will be brought under control in the years to come.
8 too…to… 句型
“too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式”这种句型是“太……以至不能……”的意思。如果“too…to…”结构中有否定词或 but、only 时，句中不定式所表示的就是肯定意义，but too、only too 可译为“非常”。
A microorganism is a tiny living thing, too small to be seen by the naked eye.
It is never too late to learn.
The veteran physician is too experienced not to know how to treat the emergency case.
They are only too glad to have these doctors give them medical help.
9 can not…too…句型
“can not…too…”一般用于“can no t + 动词原形（常为be）+ too + 形容词、副词或分词等”的句型中，意思是“无论怎样……也不会过分”，常可译为“应尽量……”。
The harmful results of pollution cannot be underscored too markedly.
It cannot be too emphasized that a combination of Chinese and Western method instead of surgery is justified in certain acute abdominal cases.
这种句型中的can not 有时可用can + 其他否定词（如never、hardly、scarcely 等）来代替，too 也可用 over 来代替。
The importance of a complete and accurate case history can not be overemphasized.
One can never be too careful in one’s work
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