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Some Common Sentence Pattern in Medical Translation (3)

5 虚拟语气 虚拟语气,又称假设语气,用以表示所述内容并非事实, 而只是一种假设、愿望、建议而已。一般有以下几种情况: 5.1 虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的应用 在非真实条件从句中的动词虚拟语气可分为三类:(1) were 型(表示与现在事实相反); (2) should be 型(表示与将来事实相反);(3) had been 型(表示与过去事实相反)。如果将这类条件从句中的w ere、should、had 提前置于句首,则可将连词 if 省略而成为不完全省略句。 If the capillaries of the lung were joined end to end,they would form a minute tube some       3000 miles long. 如果将肺的毛细血管衔接起来,就会形成一条长约 3000 哩的细管。 What would be done if the patient should develop allergy to penicillin? 如果病人真要对青霉素过敏,那该要采取什么措施呢? If he had been inoculated against smallpox, he would not have contracted the disease. 如果他真的种过牛痘的话,他就不会得病了。 Had the patient followed the doctor’s advice, he would have recovered long ago. 要是病人能听从医生的劝告,早就应该复原了。 5.2 were 型虚拟语气可用于wish 后接的宾语从句中表示动作不可能实现或实现可能性不大;也可用于 as if、as though 引起的方式状语从句,表示并非真实情况。 I wish I were younger. 但愿我年轻些。 The heart works as if it were a pump. 心脏的活动好象泵一样。 5.3 should be 型虚拟语气在其他从句中的应用 should be 型虚拟语气可用在主语从句中,常见的句型有:It is necessary that,It is recommended that,表示“建议”、“要求”、“必须”做的事。从句中的 should 有时可省略。 It is important that the malignant tumour be removed as thoroughly as possible in surgery to avoid its metastasis and recurrence. 重要的是手术时恶性肿瘤的切除应尽可能彻底, 以免转移和复发。 With any change of structure, whether it be microscopic or macroscopic, there is some degree of change of function. 只要结构发生任何变化, 不论肉眼能否看得见, 在功能上也会有某种程度的变化。 6 what 引起的名词性从句 what 常可用来引起主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句。但应注意what 引起这几种从句时有两种情况。 (1) what 用作疑问代词性的连接代词,what 表示的是一个问题,应汉译为“什么”、“什么样的”,有时也可不译出。 (2) what 用作关系代词性的连接代词,意义相当于 that which (those which) 或the thing which、the man (men) who,可以译为“所……的(事物)。” The difficulty is to know what we mean by a virus. 困难在于懂得病毒指的是什么。 What has been found by necropsy is of utmost importance. 尸检所发现的(问题)是极其重要的。 The cancer patient is not what he was a few months ago 那个癌症病人已不是几个月前那个样子了。 7 It 作形式主语的句型当动词不定式、动名词或从句作主语时,通常把它们放在谓语之后,而用一个引导词 it 放在句首,作形式主语。此处的 it 没有实际意义,可以省略不译。 It is useless to apply chemo therapy at this period of time. 在此阶段化疗是没有价值的。 It is necessary to have his chest X2 rayed 有必要让他作胸透。 It is certain that more and more diseases which are incurable for the time being will be brought under control in the years to come. 可以肯定的是:越来越多的目前暂时无法治愈的疾病将在今后几年中得到控制。 8 too...to… 句型 “too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式”这种句型是“太……以至不能……”的意思。如果“too...to...”结构中有否定词或 but、only 时,句中不定式所表示的就是肯定意义,but too、only too 可译为“非常”。 A microorganism is a tiny living thing, too small to be seen by the naked eye. 微生物是一种小得肉眼看不见的活体。 It is never too late to learn. 学习不嫌晚。 The veteran physician is too experienced not to know how to treat the emergency case. 这位高年医生经验非常丰富, 他知道如何处理这种急症病例。 They are only too glad to have these doctors give them medical help. 他们非常高兴有这些医生来给他们看病。 9 can not…too...句型 “can not…too...”一般用于“can no t + 动词原形(常为be)+ too + 形容词、副词或分词等”的句型中,意思是“无论怎样……也不会过分”,常可译为“应尽量……”。 The harmful results of pollution cannot be underscored too markedly. 污染的有害后果怎么强调也不过份。 It cannot be too emphasized that a combination of Chinese and Western method instead of surgery is justified in certain acute abdominal cases. 应尽量强调在某些急腹症病例中用中西医结合的方法代替外科手术是适宜的。 这种句型中的can not 有时可用can + 其他否定词(如never、hardly、scarcely 等)来代替,too 也可用 over 来代替。 The importance of a complete and accurate case history can not be overemphasized. 应尽量强调完整而正确的病史的重要性。 One can never be too careful in one's work 工作应该尽可能过细。

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