Repetition is a usual method during our translation process, which is to repeat the words that appeared in the original sentences, in order to make the meaning more accurate, or aim to further emphasize, and highlighted some of the contents, get better rhetorical effect. Generally speaking, English is often wording simply, try to avoid repetition. Therefore, which often use some other expressions such as alternative, omission or transform and so on.
On the contrary, repetition is a distinctive feature of the Chinese expression. Some words need to be repeated on many occasions, since only to repeat these words, semantics can be clear, the expression can be vivid. In order to achieve the accurate, fluent and completed Chinese translation standards, we often need to repeat some key words.
- Repetition for nouns
(1).Repeat for object nouns in English
Students must be cultivated to have the ability to analyze and solve problems.
They would be very reluctant to postpone or cancel the meeting.
(2) Repeat predicative noun in English
This has been our position—but not theirs.
John is your friend as much as he is mine.
(3) Repeat omitted nouns before preposition in English
English often reused preposition, and omit the nouns before second, third preposition, but we often repeat these omitted noun when translate.
The doctor will get more practice out of me than out of seventeen hundred ordinary patients.
(4) Repeat antecedent noun in the attributive clause
English attributive clause often use relationship words, it represents the antecedent word (usually a noun, noun phrase or pronoun) in attributive clause, on the other hand, which is as an ingredient clause. There are no relation words in Chinese, so we often need to repeat the antecedent noun.
He gave me a book which I kept to this day.
Yesterday afternoon, I met an old friend of mine, who said that he would go abroad the next week.
2. Repetition for verbs
(1) English sentences often use a verb to connect some objects or complements, in translation we tend to repeat the verb
Is he a friend or an enemy?
You can do that work very well if you care to.
(2) The prepositions after verbs in English, we often just use preposition and omit verbs in second or third time. In the Chinese translation is to repeat the verb to replace English repeated prepositions
We talked of ourselves, of our prospects, of the journey, of the weather, of each other—of everything.
Sometimes, in English verb preposition is omitted, but it still can repeat the verb.