On Several Types of Conversion Used in E-C Translation (II)This article will further introduce different types of conversion used in E-C translation. The following original texts all belong to one sentence pattern with no subject indicated. In this case, we had better put the “object” before the “verb” in the target text, which more complies with the expression mode of Chinese.
Example I Original text: How is an Ltd company established? Translation: 如何成立有限公司？ 有限公司如何组建？ Example II Original text: The establishment of an LTD company is implemented through the so called “one stop service”. Translation: 可通过所谓的“一站式服务”来组建有限公司。 有限公司可通过所谓的“一站式服务”完成组建。 Example III Original text: How are the Manager(s) appointed? Translation: 通过何种方式任命管理者？ 管理者如何任命? In the following two examples, if we directly translate the structure of modifying parts (like adjectives) + noun into the same structure, the readability of translation will be poor as shown in translation I. In this case, we had better translate such structures into the structure of subject/noun + modifying parts, which is more compliant with the expression mode of Chinese. Example IV Original text: The General Meeting is in quorum and validly convenes when more than half of the total number of members, representing more than half of the total company’s paid-up capital, are represented or attending the meeting themselves. Translation I: 超过半数股东（其出资额超过公司全部实缴资本的一半），授权他人代表其参加或亲自参加会议，则认定该股东大会参与人数达到法定人数且属于合法召开范畴。 Translation II: 通过代表或亲自出席股东会议的股东超过全部股东的半数，且所代表的资本超过公司全部实缴资本的过半数，则该股东大会符合法定人数并有效。 Example V Original text: Open living and dining spaces have high quality Italian ceramic tiles. Translation I: 开放的起居室和餐厅均采用高品质意大利瓷砖。 Translation II: 起居室和餐厅均采用开放式设计，并采用高品质意大利瓷砖。 Example VI Original text: The hair salon makes use of the renowned Paul Mitchell® line of hair care products, an ethically responsible company which supports numerous charities and promotes green living. Translation I: 美发沙龙使用著名品牌宝美奇的全套护发产品，该具有强烈社会责任感的公司支持多家慈善机构并倡导绿色生活。 Translatin II: 美发沙龙使用著名品牌宝美奇的全套护发产品，该品牌社会责任感强烈，支持多家慈善机构并倡导绿色生活。 The subsequent paragraphs will further give an introduction of another type of conversion used in E-C translation. Example VII Original text: We have colleagues in different countries. Translation I: 我们有来自不同国家的同事。 Translation II: 我们的同事来自不同国家。 b. Conversion of characteristics of words (I) The structure of “adjective + noun” in English could be translated into the structure of “adverb + verb/adjective” in Chinese. The words in English are connected together by means of their logical relationship, usually leaving a sentence very long in written text. In this case, there may be several words in one sentence used to express the “motion”. However, only one predicate is allowed in a sentence in English. How to solve this conflict? If the words are expressed in noun forms like the structure of “to do” or “doing”, the meaning of “motion” can be accurately expressed without the syntax broken. Consequently, there are many words with the noun characteristics which express the meaning of “motion” in English. When we make E-C translation, we often need to translate these words with noun forms into verb. Therefore, we often need to translate the structure of “adjective + noun” in English into the structure of “adverb + verb/adjective” in Chinese. The subsequent article will further display examples of this type of conversion and give an introduction of another type of conversion used in E-C translation.
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