The grammar is similar to Russian, but there are some differences. Russian does not use words for “to have” and “to be” but Slovak does:
- Ja som Angličan (I am English)
- (Ja) mám kufor (I have a suitcase).
Notice that we say “a” suitcase, but Slovak does not have articles (words like “the” and “a”).
There are three genders in Slovak. This means that it is important to know for every noun whether it is masculine, feminine or neuter. There is no article to make it obvious (like in German), but one needs to know in order to decide what the adjective ending will be.
Like in many other European languages, verbs have to agree with the person, i.e. there are different forms for ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘he’ etc. Verbs have different aspects to show whether the action is complete or not. There are also different cases which show the meaning of a word in a sentence. Different prepositions need to be followed by different cases. This all makes Slovak grammar quite complicated for English speakers.