The infinitive forms of Danish verbs end in a vowel, which in almost all cases is a schwa, represented in writing by the letter e. Verbs are conjugated according to tense, but otherwise do not vary according to person or number. For example the present tense form of the Danish infinitive verb spise (“to eat”) is spiser; this form is the same regardless of whether the subject is in the first, second, or third person, or whether it is singular or plural. This extreme ease of conjugating verbs is compensated by the large number of irregular verbs in the language.
Standard Danish nouns fall into only two grammatical genders: common and neuter, while some dialects still often have masculine, feminine and neuter. While the majority of Danish nouns (ca. 75%) have the common gender, and neuter is often used for inanimate objects, the genders of nouns are not generally predictable and must in most cases be memorized. A distinctive feature of the Scandinavian languages, including Danish, is an enclitic definite article. To demonstrate: The common gender word “a man” (indefinite) is en mand but “the man” (definite) is manden. The neuter equivalent would be “a house” (indefinite) et hus, “the house” (definite) huset. Even though the definite and indefinite articles have separate origins, they have become homographs in Danish. In the plural, the definite article is -(e)ne, as the plural endings are – / -e / -er. The enclitic article is not used when an adjective is added to the noun; here the demonstrative pronoun is used instead: den store mand “the big man”, “the big house”, det store hus.
Like most Germanic languages, Danish joins compound nouns. The example kvindehåndboldlandsholdet, “the female handball national team”, illustrates that it does so to a significantly higher degree than English. In some cases, nouns are joined with an extra s, like landsmand (from land, “country”, and mand, “man”, meaning “compatriot”), but landmand (from same roots, meaning “farmer”). Some words are joined with an extra e, like gæstebog (from gæst and bog, meaning “guest book”).
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