In Beloved, the schoolteacher is a typical slaveholder. The scholar Chen guifeng said, “The schoolteacher, who is cruel and brutal, allows his nephews to conduct a pseudo-scientific study on the slaves, treat them like lab animals.”3 He seems to be equitable. But the schoolteacher asks his two nephews to do so-called research; he used to […]
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Entries by Jenny.Zeng
The racial oppression is a persistent concern in USA. Racial discrimination hurts people’s emotions, strips of their rights and twists their characters. American white people think African culture isn’t advanced. Since the 17th century, black people became indentured servants. This is a period of inhuman regression. After the civil war, the slavery was abolished. But […]
“Everybody has his liberty and right.” But female was always inferior to male. For instance, wives did all the housework. It was regarded as their obligation to do it. They took care of their children and husbands. It was unfair. Even though a black woman was beautiful, clever or talented, the white people didn’t want […]
Toni Morrison is a popular woman writer in America. Beloved is a milestone in the history of African-American literature. Black women and their maternal love are her major concerns and the most important themes in Morrison’s fictions. The story focuses on Sethe’s escaping, killing her daughter, and reaction after the return of Beloved. The themes […]
翻译行业是个充分市场化了的行业，翻译公司翻译价格与翻译价值基本对等。翻译价值的高低与人力成本的投入和经营管理的水平成正比。 目前翻译公司翻译基本还是纯人工活，翻译公司软件主要作为质量管理的辅助工具，翻译作品还是局限于译员个人以及翻译公司译员团队的速度。质量的优劣与投入的人力资源多少和管理水平高低直接成正比，因此，质量要求越高，成本也越大，翻译费用也就必然越多。 1.ISO的质量体系 ISO的质量体系是一个比较general的质量管理体系，适用于很多行业。一般一些好的翻译公司，会参考ISO9001质量管理体系。 国际上比较认可的Translation-quality standards是欧洲的EN 15038。 美国有一个ASTM F2575-06 Standard Guide for Quality Assurance in Translation。 中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T 19363.1—2003 2.面对加急项目 一般来说，只要能分配好任务，管理好译员，统一好术语，做好统稿校对工作，一般的公司都有能力提供加急服务。 问题是，慢工出细活。如果客户对译文的品质要求比较高，尽量别选择加急，尽量争取多留些时间。 3.错误率 一般的翻译公司对于错译率的计算是：同一个错误，不管出现多少次，都只算一个错误。有的翻译公司这样计算：同一个错误，出现5次折合成一个错误。 问题在于，如果错译的只是无关紧要的词汇，错译率即使高达千分之十，客户也是可以接受的。但是如果错译的是关键词汇，即使是千分之一、万分之一的错译，也是要命的。
1. Accuracy and Faithfulness Contract English is unlike other English, in which the lexis used is formal and the structure is tight. A contract, as a legal trading agreement, is also a basis for settlement of disputes. That is to say, the aim of the contract is to define the rights and obligations of the […]
Here is the big difference between low budget clients and big corporate clients: in most cases, the little guy is paying for the work out of his own pocket. He may be trying to start a business on the side and is dipping into his family’s savings to fund things. Knowing that, it makes perfect […]
A. Natural-Flow Translation Generally speaking, when long sentence syntactic structure and logic sequence is largely in accordance with the sequence of Chinese expression we can translate word by word into Chinese according to the original order, successive translated into Chinese. Of course, what we call sequent translating does not refer to translating every word strictly abiding by its original order but to try your utmost to keep the original order and structure with the precondition that it is not against the Chinese idiomatic expression. For example: During the high energy period of a physical biorhythm we are more resistant to illness, better coordinated and more energetic; during the low energy period we are less resistant to illness, less well coordinated and tired more easily. The passage is a coordinate sentence containing two sub-clauses, the meaning order of which mainly conforms to that of Chinese logic. To translate it in light of the sequence accords with Chinese syntax featured by smooth, clearance and accuracy. Some appropriate modifiers could be added in the course of translating to make the version more coherent, clear and accurate. Translation: 当身体的生理节奏处于高能期的时候,我们的抗病力较强，身体各部分更加协调一致，精力更旺盛；处于低能期的时候，我们的抗病力较弱，身体各部分不太协调一致，而且更容易疲劳当身体的生理节奏处于高能期的时候，我们的抗病力较强，身体各部分更加协调一致，精力更旺盛；处于低能期的时候，我们的抗病力较弱，身体各部分不太协调一致，而且更容易疲劳。 The original sentence expresses the familiar logic relationship with Chinese thinking, and it is arranged in the sequence of condition, then it is advisable to translate the sentence in original sequence even though it sometimes may contain embedded clauses. This way embodies author’s thinking without any change. Therefore the translation can be in agreement with original order. B. Inverted Translation Because of the syntactic structure disparities between English and Chinese, the order of some long English sentences are usually different from the Chinese, sometimes even reversed. Here cites a conspicuous example, “the position of English attributive and adverbial is more flexible than that of Chinese”.5 Adverbial clause that expresses the time, place, reason, condition, and way is often on the back of the main clause, in the meanwhile there are a lot of rear attributive and subjective clauses. However the orders of these structures are relatively stable in Chinese. In a whole they are narrated on the basis of the time order, reason clause is often in front of result clause, and secondary content usually appear before the main content. Therefore, when the descriptive sequence of long EST sentence is contrary to that of Chinese logical expression, it is expected to be translated from the back of the sentence, reversing the original order. For example: Scientists are learning a great deal about how the large plates in the earth’s crust move, the stresses between plates, how earthquakes work, and the general probability that given place will have an earthquake, although they still cannot predict earthquakes. The main clause of the original sentence is “scientists are learning a great deal”, followed by four coordinate objects, among which there are two object clauses led by “how”, two noun clauses and one adverbial clause of concession. According to the Chinese habits of narration the concession adverbial clause are supposed to be firstly translated, secondly the four coordinate clause, placing the objects that modified by the attributive clause in the rear of another 3 objects, lastly the main clause. This kind of translation conforms to Chinese habitual order, “putting the main information in the back of the group sentences”.6 Translation: 管科学家仍不能预测地震，但对地壳中的大板块如何运动、板块间的压力大小如何、地震如何发生、特定地区发生地震的概率为多少，他们了解得越来越多。 According to Chinese habitual expression and logical thinking patterns, the concession adverbial clause is more often than not, placed in the beginning of one sentence. Therefore “although they still cannot predict earthquakes” is firstly translated, following with the four “coordinate objects”.
Over the past years there has been a blank in the research of criteria of EST translation. When it comes to the standards of translation, the one that faithfulness expressiveness, elegance advocated by Yan Fu will firstly occur in people’s minds. By faithfulness it means that the information in the source language conforms to the […]
当谈到你的事业，工作与生活的平衡，诸如此类的事情，某些活动的组合也如影随形。他们就像一个智力拼图玩具一样相互契合。如果其中一个消失了，就失去了平衡，一切都会变得非常糟糕。 对我个人来说，成功的组合总是工作，娱乐，学习，锻炼身体，增加营养，放松一下。这是我在这里的整个生活，缺一不可，否则我就会失去平衡。工作和娱乐，锻炼和营养，学习和放松，一切都处于平衡状态。 这在公司也是一样的道理： * 你必须有重点的战略，加上有效的执行策略。 * 你需要为现有的客户提供服务，但你也必须积极寻找新的客户。 * 要有公开辩论的时间，也要有决策并且和他们交朋友的时间。 * 你能够集中精力做一件事真的很好，但你也需要一个多元化的战略。 * 对于领导者来说，要有时间和他人分享自己的眼光，也要有时间倾听和了解到底在发生些什么。 坦率地说，平衡的整体思路对于管理者过于无形，就像阴阳对企业领导者可能过于像禅宗思想了。因此： 如果对一件事情过于狂热，实际上会把其他所有事情都搞砸。同样，如果试图做过多的事情——让所有人都感觉你无所不能——你就失去了重点，会发生同样的事情。虽然这可能听上去显而易见，但事实是，如果不是大多数的话，至少许多高管和领导者都迟早会陷入这种陷阱。 当一切都进展顺利的时候，坚持到底很容易。但当事情发生变化——当经济增长放缓，竞争加剧或者利润率下降的时候——这时候企业往往会丧失平衡感，朝一个方向或另一个方向走得太远。