Many translators find that legal translation is a tough job, not only because of its strong professionality, but also due to its strong logical wording. The use of adverbial clauses is one of the evidences.
Adverbial clauses are commonly used in the legal wording. Adverbial clauses include:
- Time clauses. Common conjunctions are: when, before, after, since, while, as, as long as, until, till, etc. These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event.
- Conditional clauses. Common conjunctions are: if, unless, provided that. These clauses are used to talk about a possible or counterfactual situation and its consequences.
- Purpose clauses. Common conjunctions are: in order to, so that, in order that. These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action.
- Reason clauses. Common conjunctions are: because, since, as, given. These clauses are used to indicate the reason for something.
- Result clauses. Common conjunctions is “so…that”. These clauses are used to indicate the result of something.
- Concession clauses. Common conjunctions are: although, though, while. These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising.
- Place clauses. Common conjunctions are: where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc. These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something.
- Clause of Comparison. Common conjunction is “as”. Adverb as is a clause which states comparison.
- Clauses of manner. Common conjunctions are: as, like, the way. These clauses are used to talk about someone’s behavior or the way something is done. These clauses are used to talk about someone’s behavior or the way something is done.
Let’s see some examples.
1. “deed” means a dated instrument in writing each of the parties to which, if an individual, signs in the presence of an attesting witness or, if a company, executes in accordance with its articles of association or other governing statutes.
2. the investment functions, responsibilities and powers shall cease to be vested in the Settlor/Investment Decision-Maker (and, where the Trust Fund includes any Real Estate, in the Real Estate Manager) and the provisions of Schedule II shall apply.
不再授予委托人/投资决策者任何的投资职能、职责和权力（信托基金包括任何不动产的，不再授予不动产管理人），且附录 II 的条款应适用。
3. residential real estate, acquired at the written direction of the Investment Committee with the consent of the Trustees (which the Trustees may give or decline to give, in their absolute discretion) or acquired at the direction of the Real Estate Manager pursuant to paragraph 5(7)(a) of this Schedule, or Chattels acquired at the direction of the Settlor pursuant to paragraph 5(4) of this Schedule, and in each case held as provided in paragraph 5 of this Schedule.
住宅房产，经受托人同意（受托人可同意或不同意，由其自行决定）并在投资委员会的书面指示下获得，或根据本附录段落 5(7)(a) 的规定在不动产管理人的指示下获得；或根据本附录段落 5(4) 的规定在委托人的指示下获得的动产，且不论是不动产还是动产，均应根据本附录段落 5 的规定持有。
4. Any moneys so advanced, until they have been used to discharge payments to third parties, shall remain the property of the Real Estate Company, and so that the Real Estate Company may at any time demand immediate repayment of any previously advanced moneys which are presently unused.
5. The Settlor and Real Estate Manager shall not be deemed to be trustees of the Settlement by reason of the powers reserved in this paragraph 4 or any exercise thereof, and shall not (provided they are not acting in bad faith) otherwise owe any fiduciary duties to any person in the exercise or non-exercise of any of the powers under this paragraph 4 and shall in any event not be liable under this paragraph 4, except in the event of his own wilful and individual fraud.
委托人和不动产管理人不得因本附录第 4 段规定保留的权力或行使此类权力而被视为本授产契约的托管人，在行使或不行使本部分第 4 段规定的任何权力时亦不对任何人承担任何信托责任（若其并未恶意行事），并无须根据第 4 段规定在任何情况下承担责任，其有恶意和个人欺诈的除外。
6. The provisions of Schedule II shall apply only when the investment functions, responsibilities and powers cease to be vested in the Settlor/Investment Decision-Maker (and, where the Trust Fund includes any Real Estate, in the Real Estate Manager) pursuant to paragraph 5 of Schedule I, and shall then apply only subject to paragraph 6 of Schedule II.
附录 II 的条款仅在根据附录 I 第 5 段不再向委托人/投资决策者（信托基金包括任何不动产的，不再向不动产管理人）授予投资职能、职责和权力时适用，且仅在不违反附录 II 第 6 段的前提下适用。