英汉两种语言在表达上虽有相似之处,但主要还是有差异,思想或概念上英语有英语的表达,汉语有汉语的表达。在大部分情况下,翻译的本质就是一种“替代”。用目标语的表达方式“替代”源语言的表达方式,在英汉翻译中,就是用汉语表达方式“替代”英语表达方式。 如:For most people the word “education” means “school” and “school” conjures up an image of a building with classrooms. 直译:对大部分人来说,“教育”意味着“学校”,而“学校”会使人在脑海里出现有一间一间教室的大楼形象。 “替代”表达:对大部分人来说,“教育”就意味着“学校”,而一提到“学校”,就会想到大楼里一间一间教室。 显然,“替代”表达更符合汉语表达习惯。 当然,汉语也吸收了一些西方语言的结构,如: We were, we are, and we will be your faithful partner 我们过去是,现在是,将来也是你们忠实的合作伙伴。 这种替代手段,最典型的是一些标牌或标识的翻译。 Wet paint! 油漆未干! No Smoking! 禁止吸烟! No littering! 禁止乱扔果皮纸屑! 其次是一些成语谚语翻译: To kill two birds with one stone. 一举两得 As you sow, so shall you reap. 种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆/善有善报,恶有恶报 Birds of a father flock together. 物以类聚,人以群分。 Where love is the case, the doctor is an ass. 心病尚需心药医,名医难治相思病。 Man did not learn to write until about 3000 B.C. 人类社会到公元前 3000 年才出现文字。 (直译:人类社会到公元前 3000 年才学会书写。) Nowadays, it is not seldom that a man lives to be eighty years old. 当今活到 80 岁的人是很常见的。 (直译:当今活到 80 岁的人不是不常见的。) 所谓“替换”,也就是灵活翻译,根据上下文的意思灵活表达,尽可能符合中文表达习惯,变换句式、变更词性等。

Words translated by CCJK


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