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法律翻译 - 句法

句法  准确性是法律文件翻译的核心所在。法律文件的翻译要求忠实于原文,表意准确,切勿擅自增减意思,而且还要求符合法律行文风格。法律文件中经常会出现很多修饰性短语和从句,结构复杂,这就要求我们在翻译前一定要捋清句子结构和意思,再下笔翻译。翻译长句时,如果无法做到一次性翻译妥当,可以先把意思准确翻译出来之后,再润色、精简文字。
  1. 1.     理清句子结构
法律文件中的句子有些虽然很长,但是相互之间有明显的关联性,只要理清之间的关系,可以顺藤摸瓜逐个翻译出来。 If, after the signing of this Agreement, the Chinese government either at the State, provincial, municipal or local level adopts any new law, regulation, decree or rule, amends or repeals any provision of any law, regulation, decree or rule, or adopts any different interpretation or method of implementation of any law, regulation,decree or rule, which contravenes this Agreement or which materially and adversely affects a Party’s economic benefit under this Agreement, then upon written notice thereof from the affected party to the other Party, the Parties shall promptly consult and decide whether(i)to continue to implement the Agreement in accordance with the original provisions thereof as per the relevant provisions of the Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China; or(ii)to effectuate necessary adjustments in order to preserve each Party’s economic benefit under this Agreement on a basis no less favorable than the economic benefit it would have received if such law, regulation, decree or rule had not been adopted,amended,repealed or so Interpreted or implemented. 看到这句话时,很多人可能会傻眼,怎么这么长,其实仔细分析下,句子的结构还是很清楚的,由假设状语从句、主语、谓语和宾语从句组成。假设状语从句中,包含一个时间状语(after the signing of this Agreement)和一个定语从句(which contravenes this Agreement …)。宾语从句中则包含了方式状语和目的状语。分析清楚后,逐个对照翻译出来即可。 参考译文: 如果本协议签署之后,中国国家、省、市或地方政府通过任何新的法律、法规、法令或条例,修改或废除任何法律、法规、法令或条例的任何条款,或对任何法律、法规、法令或条例给予不同的解释或采取不同的实施办法,导致与本协议相冲突,或对一方在本协议项下的经济利益造成实质性的不利影响,受到影响的一方经书面通知另一方后,双方应立即协商并决定是否(1)根据《中华人民共和国合同法》的有关规定继续按照本协议的原条款执行本协议,或(2)做出必要的调整,以保持各方在本协议项下的经济利益,使之不逊于各方在该等法律、法规、法令或条例未通过、未修改、未废除、未做出不同的解释或未采取不同的实施方法之前所能获得的经济利益。

  1. 2.     按照中文习惯适当改变词语的顺序。
虽然忠实原文是法律翻译的首要要求,但这并不意味着需要完全按照英文的顺序来翻译,我们应该按照中文的习惯适当改变词语的顺序。 时间在前,地点在后。 This COMMON STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”) is entered into at Beijing City, PRC as of November 20, 2010, by and between: 本普通认股协议(“本协议”)协议于二零一零年十一月二十日由以下双方在中国北京市签署: 原因在前,结果在后。 Party A is entitled to request compensation of its property for any damage in exhibition hall of Party A during exhibition provided that such damages is due to party B’s fault. 在展览期间,如果甲方展厅中财产由于乙方的过失而受到任何损害,则甲方有权针对该等损害向乙方提出索赔。
  1. 3.     另起炉灶
另起炉灶在这里是指将某个句子成分翻译为一个完整的句子,从而使译文读起来更通顺、更符合语言的表达习惯。很多情况下,我们可以将句子的某个成分提取出来,单独成句。 It is understood that the Exhibition is a travelling Exhibition and that it may be shown in any other exhibition venue at XXX’S discretion, on the basis of the same concept, signs and layout of the Works. “on the basis of the same concept, signs and layout of the Works”是方式状语,即:根据相同的作品概念、标志和布局。 试译:双方理解,本展览为巡回展览,可能由XXX自行决定在任何其他展览地点按照相同的作品概念、标志和布局展出。 译文可以接受,但是如果将其稍作修改,效果大不相同: 改译:双方理解,本展览为巡回展览,可能由XXX自行决定在任何其他展览地点展出,但作品的概念、标志和布局保持不变。 The Company desires to issue and sell to the Purchaser, and the Purchaser desires to purchase from the Company, xxx Common Shares for an aggregate purchase price of US$ xxx. “for an aggregate purchase price of US$9,000,000”亦作状语,如果不另起炉灶,则翻译为: 试译:公司有意向认购人发行、出售且认购人有意从公司购买总买价为xxx 美元的 xxx股普通股。 改译:公司有意向认购人发行、出售且认购人有意从公司购买xxx股普通股,总购买价为xxx 美元。

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